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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JABAL IBN JAWWAL – Jewish Arabic poet of the seventh century; contemporary of Mohammed. According to Ibn Hisham ("Kitab Sirat Rasul Allah," ed. Wüstenfeld, pp. 690, 713) and Abu al-Faraj al-Iṣbahani ("Kitab al-Aghani," viii. 104), Jabal was a...
JABEZ, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH HA-DORESH – Turkish Biblical exegete and preacher in the second half of the sixteenth century; a descendant of Joseph Jabez. He wrote: (1) "Ḥasde Abot," commentary on Pirḳe Abot (Constantinople, 1583); (2) "Yafiḳ Raẓon," homiletic...
JABEZ, JOSEPH BEN ḤAYYIM – Spanish theologian of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He lived for a time in Portugal, where he associated with Joseph Ḥayyun, who inspired him with that taste for mysticism which he subsequently displayed in his...
JABNEH – Philistine city; taken by Uzziah, who demolished its wall (II Chron. xxvi. 6). Jabneh is mentioned with Gath and Ashdod, two other cities of the Philistines, and is generally identified by Biblical students with Jabneel ( ), on...
JACA – City of Aragon, Spain. Jews were settled here as early as the eleventh century, during which the city became the seat of a Jewish high school. Sancho Ramirez the Great, King of Navarre, did not permit the Jews to grind their...
JÄCKLIN (JACOB) – Jewish financier of Ulm in the fourteenth century; married the daughter of the "Grossjuden" Moses of Ehingen. Jäcklin had several sons; one of them, Isaac, lived in Strasburg, another in Riedlingen, or Reutlingen, and a third,...
JACOB (ABERLE, ABRIL) BENEDICT (BENET) – Rabbi at Alt-Ofen at the beginning of the nineteenth century; son of Mordecai b. Abraham Benet (Marcus Benedict). Jacob was the author of "Toledot Mordekai Benet" (Alt-Ofen, 1832). The first part contains a biography, and the...
JACOB ÇADIQUE (ẒADDIḲ) – Spanish physician and writer; born at Ucles in the second third of the fourteenth century. He devoted himself to the study of medicine, and became body-physician to D. Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa, Maestre de Santiago, from whom...
JACOB BEN DAVID PROVENÇAL – French Talmudist of the fifteenth century; not to be confounded with the astronomer Jacob ben David ben Yom-Ṭob Po'el, called "Sen Bonet Bongoron (or Bonjorn) of Perpignan" (14th cent.). Jacob lived at Marseilles, where he was...
JACOB THE GALILEAN – Son of the Judah who caused an uprising against the Romans at the time of the taxation under Quirinius. Jacob followed his father's example, and together with his brother Simeon also rebelled against the Romans. The procurator...
JACOB BEN MORDECAI HA-KOHEN – Gaon of Sura from 801 to 815; succeeded Hilai ben Mari. He officiated fourteen years, according to a text of Sherira ("M. J. C." i. 39); according to other authorities (l.c. i. 65, 188), eighteen years. In his decisions Jacob...
JACOB BEN JOSEPH ISRAEL – French scholar; lived at Pont-Audemer in the twelfth century; pupil of Jacob Tam, with whom he carried on a correspondence ("Sefer ha-Yashar," pp. 77-78; Tos. to Ket. 98b), and of Samuel b. Meïr ("Teshubot Rabbane Ẓarfat," No....
JACOB OF KEFAR SEKANYA (SIMAÏ) – Judæo-Christian of the first century; mentioned on two occasions, in both Talmuds and in the Midrash. Meeting R. Eliezer in the upper market-place of Sepphoris, he asked him for an opinion on a curious ritualistic question...
JACOB BEN MOSES OF BAGNOLS – Provençal theologian of the second half of the fourteenth century; lived successively at Salon, Avignon, and Argon. He was the author of a casuistic and philosophical work, still extant in manuscript ("British Museum Cat." MS....
JACOB BEN NATHANAEL IBN AL-FAYYUMI – Rosh yeshibah of the Yemen Jews in the second half of the twelfth century. All that is known of him is that at the suggestion of Solomon ha-Kohen, a pupil of Maimonides, he wrote to the latter asking his advice in regard to a...
JACOB NAZIR – French exegete; flourished in the second half of the twelfth century; one of the five sons of Meshullam ben Jacob of Lunel. "Jacob of Lunel" would accordingly be only another designation for "Jacob Nazir." Jacob Nazir wrote...
JACOB BEN OBADIAH SFORNO – Italian scholar; lived at Venice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was the author of a work entitled "Iggeret ha-Ṭe'amim," on the Hebrew accents (Venice, 1600). Steinschneider, however, believesthe work to be...
JACOB OF PONT SAINT-MAXENCE – French tax-farmer of the fourteenth century. With Manecier of Vesoul and his brother Vivant he was appointed (1360) by Charles V., King of France, to collect the taxes imposed upon the Jews, retaining two florins out of the...
JACOB B. REUBEN – Karaite Bible exegete of the eleventh century. He wrote a brief Hebrew commentary on the entire Bible, which he entitled "Sefer ha-'Osher," because, as he says in the introduction, the reader will find therein sufficient...
JACOB BEN REUBEN IBN ẒUR – Talmudist and rabbi of Fez; born in the latter part of the seventeenth century; died after 1750. That his reputation as a Talmudist stood high is apparent in the responsa ("Kerem Ḥemed," Leghorn, 1871) of Abraham Ankava, where...
JACOB BEN SOSA – Idumean leader. In the great war against Rome, 67-70, when Simon bar Giora went on a raid through Idumæa to take provisions, the Idumeans gathered together to defend their country, and then 20,000 of them went to Jerusalem. One...
JACOB OF VIENNA – Austrian rabbi and Biblical commentator of the fourteenth century. The Munich MSS. (Hebrew) contain a commentary on the Pentateuch written by "Jacob of Vienna" (No. 27, 2) and mention a certain "Jacob of Austria" (No. 402). Zunz...
JADDUA – High priest at the time of the Second Temple. According to Neh. xii. 11, his father's name was Jonathan, but according to verse 22 of the same chapter, it was Johanan. If both of these names are correct, and if Johanan was the...
JAEN – Capital of the province of Jaen in Andalusia, Spain. It possessed a flourishing Jewish community as early as the thirteenth century. In 1391 many of its members were either killed or forced to accept baptism. A still heavier...
JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION – Objects. Society founded by Baron de Hirsch Sept., 1891, and incorporated at London under the Companies' Acts of 1862-90, with a capital of £2,000,000, divided into 20,000 non-dividend-drawing shares of £100 each; Baron de...