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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JARE – Name of an ancient Italian family of scholars dating back to the fifteenth century.Giuseppe Jaré: Italian rabbi; born at Mantua, Dec., 1840. He was educated at the Istituto Rabbinico of Padua, being one of the last pupils of S....
JASON – 1. High priest from 174 to 171 B.C.; brother of the high priest Onias III. During the absence of Onias, who had been summoned to Antioch to meet charges brought against him by the Hellenists, Jason joined hands with his...
JASON OF CYRENE – Judæo-Hellenistic historian. He wrote a history of the Maccabean revolt in five books, from which the author of II Maccabees took his data (II Macc. ii. 23), this book being practically an abstract (ἐπιτομὴ; ib. ii. 26, 28) of...
JASSY (Jaschi) – City of Rumania. Jassy contains the oldest and most important Jewish community of Moldavia, of which principality it was formerly the capital. Psantir has found in the old cemetery there stones with inscriptions dating back to...
JATIVA – City in the kingdom of Valencia. The Jews of this locality were granted special privileges by Don Jaime, the conqueror of Valencia. He gave them houses and fields, and allotted them a street as a special quarter. In 1267 the...
JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES OF RECANATI – Italian scholar; flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. At the request of Immanuel di Fano, Jedidiah translated, in 1580, the "Moreh Nebukim" into Italian, under the title "Erudizione di Confusi." Parts of this...
JEHIEL BEN ASHER – Liturgical poet; flourished in Andalusia in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He was the author of four liturgical poems, mentioned by Zunz ("L. G. " p. 520), and of a dirge of twenty-five strophes on the persecution of...
JEHIEL OF PISA – Philanthropist and scholar of Pisa; died there Feb. 10, 1492. The wealth he had acquired in the banking business he spent liberally for charitable purposes. Himself a scholar, he extended his protection to Jewish learning....
JEHUDI B. SHESHET – Hebrew philologist of the tenth century; pupil of Dunash b. Labraṭ. He is known exclusively through the polemic in which he defended his teacher against the attacks of the pupils of Menahem b. Saruḳ. The only manuscript which...
JEKUTHIEL BEN SOLOMON – French physician; lived at Narbonne in the second half of the fourteenth century. In 1387 he translated into Hebrew, under the title "Shoshan ha-Refu'ah," the "Lilium Medicinæ" of Bernard of Gordon. The translation is extant in...
JERIDIE-TERJUME – Title of a Jewish periodical, written in Judæo-Spanish, and printed in rabbinic characters, which was published at Constantinople in 1876 under the editorship of Nissim Niego.G. M. Fr.
JEROHAM BEN MESHULLAM – French Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. According to Gross, he lived in Languedoc, but on the banishment of the Jews from that province (1306) he settled at Toledo, where he devoted himself to...
JEWISH SPECTATOR, THE – The first Jewish weekly journal in the southern United States; founded in Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 19, 1885, by M. Samfield and edited and published by him until 1904. In 1892 his son Joseph M. Samfield assumed the position of...
JERUSALEM – Ancient: Cross-Sectional View of Jerusalem (West to East) as Seen from the South.(After Heyck, "Die Kreuzzüge.")Capital at first of all Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah; chief city of Palestine; situated in 31° 46′ 45″ N....
JESCHURUN – Periodical published in Frankfort-on-the-Main and subsequently in Hanover. Founded in Oct., 1854, it was issued as a monthly by Samson Raphael Hirsch up to 1870. From 1882 till 1886 his son Isaac Hirsch published it as a weekly....
JESCHURUN (Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums) – Periodical edited and published by Joseph Isaac Kobak. Among its contributors were S. L. Rapoport, S. D. Luzzatto, A. H. Weiss, Halberstam, Dukes, Steinschneider, Reifmann, and other well-known scholars. The first two volumes...
JESUS B. PHABI – High priest (c. 30 B.C.). He was deposed by Herod the Great, his office being given to Simon, the son of Boethus, the king's father-in-law (Josephus, "Ant." xv. 9, § 3). Jesus'father's name in this passage of Josephus (ed....
JESURUN – A family whose members were descendants of the Spanish exiles, and are found mainly in Amsterdam and Hamburg. The earliest known member appears to have been Reuel Jesurun.Daniel Jesurun: Preacher and president of an educational...
JESUS OF NAZARETH – In History: Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 B.C. (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 C.E.). His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had...
JESUS BEN ZAPPHA – General (στρατηγός) of Idumæa in the first century, appointed by the revolutionary government of Jerusalem after Cestius Gallus had been driven away. Jesus' companion was Eleazar b. Neos; and both belonged to high-priestly...
JEW, THE – Jewish monthly whose avowed object finds expression in its subtitle as "being a defense of Judaism against all adversaries, and particularly against the insidious attacks of Israel's advocate." It was published in New York city...
JEWISH ABEND-POST – Yiddish newspaper, issued daily except Saturday and Jewish holidays, established in New York Feb. 3, 1899, by Jacob Saphirstein and Joseph L. Rosenbaum; now (1904) published by the Jewish Press Publishing Company. Its first...
JEWISH CHRONICLE, THE – Oldest and most influential Anglo-Jewish newspaper; published in London, England; next to the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," the oldest Jewish newspaper in existence. It first appeared Nov. 12, 1841, under the editorship...
JEWISH COMMENT – A weekly published at Baltimore, Md., since May 29, 1895. Its first editor was Max Myers; he was succeeded by Louis H. Levin. The "Comment's" theological position is conservative, but it welcomes free interchange of opinions...
JEWISH CRITERION, THE – American weekly newspaper; established at Pittsburg, Pa., Feb; 8, 1895, by S. Steinfirst and Joseph Mayer. Rabbi Samuel Greenfield was its first editor. In 1899 Charles H. Joseph succeeded him, and in 1900 became owner of the...