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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JEWISH EXPONENT, THE – A weekly published in Philadelphia and Baltimore since 1887, when it was founded by the Jewish Exponent Publishing Company. Charles Hoffman is the editor, and Ephraim Lederer associate editor. It represents American Judaism in...
JEWISH LEDGER, THE – Weekly journal; founded in New Orleans, La., Jan. 4, 1895, by A. Steeg, who is still (1904) its publisher. Its first editor was Alexander Harris, who was succeeded by Maurice Switzer, afterward editor of "The Owl" (absorbed by...
JEWISH MESSENGER, THE – Weekly; published in New York city; founded and edited by R. Samuel M. Isaacs (Jan., 1857). Upon his death his son Abram S. Isaacs became editor (May 19, 1878). Its editorial and theological position was conservative. Under its...
JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL (MORGEN JOURNAL) – The first Yiddish daily morning newspaper; established in New York July 2, 1901, by Jacob Saphirstein, who is still (1904) its managing editor; now published by the Jewish Press Publishing Company. Its staff of writers includes...
JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW – Journal of Jewish science; founded in London Oct., 1888; edited by Israel Abrahams and C. G. Montefiore. While containing for the most part scientific articles on Jewish literature and history, it has also from time to time...
JEWISH RECORD, THE – Weekly; published in Philadelphia, Pa., from 1874 until the spring of 1887. Alfred T. Jones was the editor, and later Henry S. Morais became associate editor. Its theological position was conservative.G. A. M. F....
JEWISH REVIEW AND OBSERVER, THE – American weekly newspaper; founded under the name "The Jewish Review" in Nov., 1893, by M. Machol and his son Jacob Machol. at Cleveland, Ohio, and continued under their management until Nov. 4, 1896, when it was purchased by...
JEWISH TIMES, THE; A Journal of Reform and Progress – A weekly published in New York city. The first number appeared on March 5, 1869, Moritz Ellinger being the publisher, and from Nov. 10, 1871, to Feb. 23, 1872, also the editor. On Oct. 4, 1878, Harry H. Marks became the occupant...
JEWISH VOICE – American weekly newspaper; published in St. Louis, Mo., since Jan. 1, 1888. The present editor, M. Spitz, founded on Aug. 29, 1879, the "Jewish Tribune," which title was changed to the "Jewish Free Press," and later to the...
JEWISH WORLD, THE – The fourth Jewish newspaper published in London, immediately on the passing of the "Jewish Record." Its first number was issued Feb. 14, 1873, the founders being George Lewis Lyon, who remained the proprietor and general editor...
JEWRY – Originally a designation for Judea and sometimes for the entire Holy Land. The term was afterward applied to any special district inhabited by Jews; hence the name of "Old Jewry" in London. The following reference to a Jewry...
JOAB – Jewish family to which belonged Aaron b. Samuel ha-Nasi, who lived for some time at Oria in Apulia in the second half of the ninth century. The name "Joab" has been especially frequent since the tenth century in the Roman family...
JOAB BEN JEHIEL – Liturgical poet; lived at Rome in the fourteenth century. He belonged to the Beth-El family, and was the author of five piyyuṭim (inserted in the Roman Maḥzor) for Passover, having for their subject the Canticles, and piyyuṭim...
JOHANAN GADI – Eldest of the five sons of Mattathias the Maccabee (I Macc. ii. 2; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 1), though the least important. When Jonathan took the leadership and was being hard pressed in the country east of the Jordan, he...
JOIADA – Son of Eliashib, high priest about 450 B.C. (Neh. xii. 10-11, 22). One of his children became a son-in-law of Sanballat the Horonite, and was removed from the Temple by Nehemiah (Neh. xiii. 28).G. S. Kr.
JOHANAN BEN JEHOIADA – High priest under Artaxerxes Ochus (359-338 B.C.); perhaps identical with the one mentioned in Neh. xii. 11 ("Johanan" being read instead of "Jonathan") and 22. He murdered his younger brother Jesus in the Temple, probably...
JOHANAN BEN KAREAH – General of the Israelites at the time of Nebuchadnezzar (c. 586 B.C.). After the kingdom of Judea had been destroyed by the Chaldeans, the Babylonian king appointed Gedaliah b. Ahikam governor, with residence at Mizpah, over the...
JOHANNES HISPALENSIS – Baptized Jew who flourished between 1135 and 1153; his Jewish name is unknown and has been corrupted into "Avendeut," "Avendehut" = "Aven Daud," "Avendar." He was a native of Toledo, and hence is called also Johannes (David)...
JOHANNES PAULI – German humorist and convert to Christianity; born about 1455; died at Thann 1530. He became a distinguished preacher of the Franciscan Order at Oppenheim and Strasburg, at which latter place he took notes of Geiler's sermons,...
JOHN OF GISCALA (Johanan ben Levi) – Native of the small Galilean city of Giscala ( ), who took an important part in the great war against Rome (66-70). He was originally poor, weak in body, and not at all eager for battle; but the vices that Josephus ascribes to...
JOINVILLE – French town in the department of Haute-Marne; in the Tosafot occur , and other variants (Yoma 81; 'Er. 24; Ber. 8; Bek.32; etc.). The counts of Champagne drew abundant revenue from the Jews of Joinville, who were practically...
JONATHAN BEN ABSALOM – General of Simon Maccabeus. At the command of the latter he took possession of Joppa, and drove out the inhabitants in order that they might not be able to surrender the city to Ṭarfon (I Macc. xiii. 11; Josephus, "Ant." xiii....
JONATHAN B. ANAN – Son of the high priest Anan; was appointed by Vitellius high priest in the place of Joseph Caiaphas, at the time of the Passover in the year 36 (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 4, § 3). For reasons unknown he was deposed by Vitellius...
JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL – French philosopher; flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He defended Maimonides against the severe attacks of Abraham ben David of Posquières (RABaD), and at Jonathan's instance Maimonides sent to Lunel his "Moreh...
JONATHAN BEN JACOB – Hungarian Talmudist and author; flourished at Buda (Ofen) toward the end of the seventeenth century. In 1688, when Buda was taken by the imperial troops, Jonathan was among the captives, but he was ransomed by the Jews of...