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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JONATHAN BEN JOSEPH – Lithuanian rabbi and astronomer; lived at Risenoi, government of Grodno, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In addition to his Talmudical acquirements Jonathan was proficient in astronomy and mathematics. In 1710 a...
JONATHAN MACCABEUS – Leader of the Jews. Son of Mattathias; leader of the Jews in the Maccabean wars from 161 to 143 B.C. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, ] = "the dissembler," "the diplomat," in allusion to a trait prominent in him; I...
JONATHAN THE SADDUCEE – Friend of the Hasmonean prince John Hyrcanus (135-104 B.C.). As the Pharisees belittled the prince's fitness for the office of high priest, Jonathan incited the prince against them, with the intention of driving them out of...
JULIUS OF PAVIA – One of the first European Jews of the Middle Ages known by name. About 760 he disputed at Pavia with Magister Peter of Pisa on the truth of the Christian religion. Alcuin, the friend of Charlemagne, mentions this disputation, at...
JOSE BEN JOSE – The earliest payyeṭan known by name; flourished, at the latest, about the end of the sixth century in Palestine. He is callea "ha-yatom" (the orphan), probably because, bearing his father's name, it was assumed that the latter...
JOSEPH – Sold as Slave. —Biblical Data: Eleventh son of Jacob and the elder of the two sons of Rachel; born at Haran (Gen. xxx. 24). The meaning given to the name (l.c.) is "shall add": "The Lord shall add to me another son." It seems...
JOSEPH (High Priest) – 1. Son of Ellem ( ) of Sepphoris; installed by Herod for one day (Yom Kippur) as a substitute for the high priest, who had become unclean (Tosef., Yoma i. 4; Yer. Yoma i. 1; Yer. Hor. iii. 3; Hor. 12b; et al.). Josephus, who...
JOSEPH (MAESTRO) DE NOVES – French physician of Avignon who lived in the middle of the fifteenth century, and was highly esteemed throughout the south of France (Joseph Colon, Responsa, No. 181). During the first part of the seventeenthcentury a rabbi of...
JOSEPH BEN AḤMAD IBN ḤASDAI – Egyptian physician and medical writer; lived in Cairo at the beginning of the twelfth century. Although his biographer, Ibn Abi Uṣaibi'ah, does not affirm his Jewish descent, there is no doubt that Joseph belonged to the...
JOSEPH THE APOSTATE – Jewish convert to Christianity in the first half of the fourth century. He was one of the assessors of the rabbinical school of the patriarch Judah III. at Tiberias, and in this capacity was sent as delegate to the Jewish...
JOSEPH BEN BARUCH – Tosafist of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Gross identifies him with Joseph of Clisson. Joseph resided for some time in Paris, where he associated with Judah Sir Leon and instructed Samuel of Falaise in special...
JOSEPH OF CHARTRES – French elegiac poet; born in the second half of the twelfth century (Zunz ["Literaturgesch." p. 470] says that he flourished about 1200-10); brother-in-law of Joseph b. Nathan of Etampes, and great-uncle of the author of "Joseph...
JOSEPH OF GAMALA – Son of a midwife (Josephus, "Vita," § 37). With Chares he incited the inhabitants of Gamala to revolt against Agrippa, and hence also against the Romans, in 66 C.E. (Josephus, "B. J." iv. 1, § 4). When the Romans took the city,...
JOSEPH BEN GORION – Date of the "Yosippon." Author of the "Sefer Yosippon," a history of the Jews from the time of the destruction of Babylon (539 B.C.) to the downfall of the Jewish state (70 C.E.), with historical accounts of Babylonia, Greece,...
JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN ẒADDIḲ – Spanish rabbi, poet, and philosopher; died at Cordova 1149. A Talmudist of high repute, he was appointed in 1138 dayyan at Cordova, which office he held conjointly with Maimon, father of Maimonides, until his death. Joseph was...
JOSEPH BEN JACOB – Gaon of Sura about 930-936 and 942-948. He was chosen by the exilarch David ben Zakkai to fill the place of Saadia (c. 930) when the latter was deposed. In 936, however, when the exilarch became reconciled to Saadia, Joseph was...
JOSEPH BEN JOHANAN – French rabbi of the fourteenth century. He was a native of Treves ( , read by Carmoly "Troyes"), and seems to have been the first to adopt "Treves" as a family name. He is called also "the Great" ("ha-Gadol"), owing to his...
JOSEPH BEN JOSHUA BEN MEÏR HA-KOHEN – Historian and physician of the sixteenth century; born at Avignon Dec. 20, 1496; died at Genoa in 1575 or shortly after. His family originally lived at Cuenca, then at Chuete, Spain; when the Jews were expelled from Spain it...
JOSEPH BEN KALONYMUS HA-NAḲDAN – German Masorite and liturgical poet; flourished in the first half of the thirteenth century. He was the author of a long acrostic poem on the accents, with a commentary. Joseph composed also liturgical poems, among which were:...
JOSEPH (B. JACOB) OF MANDEVILLE (MORELL) – French exegete; pupil of Abraham ibn Ezra. He wrote a supercommentary on that scholar's commentary on Exodus (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 1234, 9). It is probable that he is identical with the Joseph b. Jacob to whom...
JOSEPH IBN PLAT – Rabbinical authority of the twelfth century; born presumably in southern Spain, whence he went to Provence and settled in Lunel, though Epstein is of opinion that he was born in the Byzantine empire. If this is so, he may be...
JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM BARUCH BEN NERIAH – French rabbi; born at Aix, Provence; flourished at Avignon toward the end of the thirteenth century. Like his father, Abraham ben Joseph of Aix, he was an adherent of Abba Mari of Lunel. During the religious controversy of...
JOSEPH SHALLIṬ BEN ELIEZER RICHETTI (RIQUETI) – Italian scholar; born at Safed, Palestine; lived in the second half of the seventeenth century at Verona, where he directed a Talmudical school. He was the author of "Ḥokmat ha-Mishkan" or "Iggeret Meleket ha-Mishkan" (Mantua,...
JOSEPH BEN SHESHET LATIMI – Spanish liturgical poet; lived at Lerida in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In 1308 he wrote a prayer entitled "Elef Alfin" (comp. Dan. vii. 10), consisting of one thousand words, each word beginning with the letter א,...
JOSEPH BEN UZZIEL – Supposed author of a cabalistic work which is often quoted by Recanati, in his commentary on the Pentateuch, under the title of "Baraita de-R. Yosef b. 'Uzziel," which is entitled "Mishnat Yosef b. 'Uzziel" in Neubauer, "Cat....