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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JOSEPH ZABARA (Joseph ben Meïr Zabara) – Spanish physician, satirist, and poet of the beginning of the thirteenth century; born and died in Barcelona. He studied in Narbonne under Joseph Ḳimḥi, who twice quotes Zabara on Proverbs. The only work known to be his is the...
JOSEPH B. ZACHARIAH – Jewish general of the Maccabean period. He, together with Azariah, was left in charge of the forces when the Maccabean brothers Judah, Jonathan, and Simon were obliged to go to Gilead and Galilee for the protection of the Jews...
JOSEPH BEN ẒADDIḲ – Rabbi in Arevalo, Spain, during the fifteenth century; author of a treatise entitled "Zeker Ẓaddiḳ," on ritual matters, in fifty chapters, still in manuscript. The last chapter contains a chronicle of Jewish worthies from the...
JOSEPH ẒARFATI – Convert to Christianity and missionary to the Jews at Rome; died before 1597. He accepted Christianity in 1552, taking the name of Andrea (Filippo?) di Monti (more correctly del Monte) in honor of Julius III. He was born in Fez,...
JOSEPH (Josel) BEN ZEEB WOLF LEVI – Rabbi in Lesla during the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a supercommentary on Rashi to the Pentateuch entitled "Tif'eret Yosef" (Prague, 1724); it deals with the first three books of the...
JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS – General and historian; born in 37 or 38; died after 100. He boasts of belonging to the Hasmonean race on his mother's side ("Vita," § 1). His great-grandfather was Simon "the Stammerer." As a boy Josephus was distinguished for...
ḲALIR, ELEAZAR – Place and Date Doubtful. One of the earliest and the most prolific of the payyeṭanim or liturgical poets. In the acrostics of his hymns he usually signs his father's name , but three times he writes . Eleazar's name, home ( ),...
ḲALIR, ELEAZAR – Place and Date Doubtful. One of the earliest and the most prolific of the payyeṭanim or liturgical poets. In the acrostics of his hymns he usually signs his father's name , but three times he writes . Eleazar's name, home ( ),...
JOSHUA, THE SAMARITAN BOOK OF – Samaritan chronicle, written in Arabic; so termed because the greater part of it is devoted to the history of Joshua. It was published from an Arabic manuscript written in Samaritan characters, with a Latin translation and a...
JOSHUA (BRUNO) – Physician and scholar of Treves; lived in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. He treated Bruno, Archbishop of Treves (1102-4), who granted him the privilege to wear knightly garments. The archbishop had frequent religious...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN DAMNAI – High priest about 62-63 C.E. He was appointed by King Agrippa II., after Anan, son of Anan, had been deposed (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 9, § 1). Joshua also was soon deposed by the king, and in his place Jesus (Joshua) b. Gamaliel...
JOSHUA (Jesus) BEN GAMLA – A high priest who officiated about 64 C.E. He married therich widow Martha of the high-priestly family Boethos (Yeb. vi. 4), and she by bribing Agrippa II. (not Jannai, as Talmudic sources say) secured for him the office of high...
KORAN – The sacred scriptures of Islam. According to Mohammedan belief, based upon the testimony of the book itself, the Koran consists of separate revelations vouchsafed by God to Mohammed through the angel Gabriel (sura ii. 91, xxv....
KORAN – The sacred scriptures of Islam. According to Mohammedan belief, based upon the testimony of the book itself, the Koran consists of separate revelations vouchsafed by God to Mohammed through the angel Gabriel (sura ii. 91, xxv....
JOSHUA (FALK) LISSER BEN JUDAH LÖB – German Talmudist; born in Lissa, Posen. He was schoolmaster at Hamburg toward the end of the seventeenth century, and was the author of "'Emeḳ Yehoshua'" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1699), annotations to the Pentateuch and to...
JOTAPATA – City in Galilee to the north of Sepphoris, strongly fortified by Josephus (Josephus, "Vita," § 37). In the Mishnah ('Ar. ix. 6, 32a) this city is called , styled "the Ancient," and is supposed to have been fortified by Joshua....
JUAN DE VALLADOLID – Spanish poet and Marano of lowly station; born about 1420 in Valladolid. He lived at the courts of Naples, Mantua, and Milan as improvisator and astrologer. On his return to Spain he was captured by Moorish pirates and taken to...
JUDÆANS, THE – A society organized in New York Jan. 28, 1897, upon lines similar to those of the Maccabæans in London, England. It was formed "for the purpose of promoting and furthering the intellectual and spiritual interests of Jews."...
JUDÆO-GERMAN – The language spoken by the German Jews in Russia, former Poland, Austria, Rumania, and lately in America and South Africa. It is spoken also by many Jews in Germany, where, however, it is fast dying out. Before the end of the...
JUDÆO-GERMAN LITERATURE – The earliest known Judæo-German translation of the Maḥzor belongs to the fourteenth century, and Isaac ben Eliezer's "Sefer ha-Gan," which has had many editions, as well as Simeon ben Judah's "Sefer ha-Musar," was written in the...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN – Among the Jews of Babylonia. Language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. The earliest evidence of the entrance of Persian words into the language of the Israelites is found in the Bible. The post-exilic portions, Hebrew as...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN LITERATURE – Sources. At the present stage of research it is not possible to arrange the literature of the Jews written in Persian but in Hebrew characters either in chronological or even in geographical order, because the origin of the...
JUDÆO-SPANISH LANGUAGE (LADINO) AND LITERATURE – Judæo-Spanish is a dialect composed of a mixture of Spanish and Hebrew elements, which is still used as the vernacular and as a literary language by the Sephardim or "Spagnioli," descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain and...
JUDAH (Coadjutor of Josephus) – The Sanhedrin of Jerusalem commissioned Judah and Joezar to assist Josephus (66 C.E.) in pacifying the people and inducing them to lay down their arms. Josephus at first calls them noble men ("Vita," § 7), but afterward remarks...
JUDAH (Jewish Prince) – Son of Simeon Tharsi. When Antiochus VII., Sidetes, sent his general Cendebæus against Simeon, the latter, too old for war, gave the command to his two sons Judah and John, who valiantly executed the commission. After a short...