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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JUDAH ("Rabbi Mor") – Chief rabbi of the Jews in Portugal and treasurer of King Don Diniz, with whom he enjoyed great favor; died before 1304. He was very wealthy; in 1298 he lent 6,000 livres to Don Raimund de Cardona for the purchase of the city of...
JUDAH – Treasurer to Ferdinand, King of Portugal; appointed in 1378. After the king's death he became the favorite of his queen, Leonora de Meneyes, whom he accompanied as a page when she was obliged to flee from the infuriated populace...
JUDAH B. ABUN – Spanish poet; lived in Seville. He was probably the son of that Abun to whom Moses ibn Ezra dedicated several poems and whose death Ibn Ezra bewailed in an elegy ("Diwan," No. 12; "Monatsschrift," xl. 198). Judah is classed, in...
JUDAH ARYEH LÖB BEN JOSHUA HÖSCHEL – Rabbi at Slutsk, government of Minsk, Russia, in the middle of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Torah Or" (Berlin, 1745), halakot concerning the reading and writing of the Law and the rudiments of Hebrew grammar....
JUDAH OF CORBEIL – Tosafist of the thirteenth century. He wrote tosafot to a great number of Talmudical treatises, and is quoted in the "Kol Bo" (No. 87, on Berakot), in the Tosafot Yeshanim (on Yoma 14a), in the tosafot of Asheri (to Yeb. 14a;...
JUDAH HA-DARSHAN BEN MOSES – French Bible commentator; lived at Toulouse in the first half of the eleventh century. He is often quoted by Rashi in his commentary on the Pentateuch, and is twice mentioned in a commentary on the Maḥzor (Cod. Munich, No. 346)...
JUDAH HA-LEVI – His Youth. Spanish philosopher and Hebrew poet; born at Toledo, southern Castile, in the last quarter of the eleventh century; died in the Orient after 1140. If his birth is correctly assigned to 1085 or 1086 (Rapoport, in...
JUDAH HA-LEVI – His Youth. Spanish philosopher and Hebrew poet; born at Toledo, southern Castile, in the last quarter of the eleventh century; died in the Orient after 1140. If his birth is correctly assigned to 1085 or 1086 (Rapoport, in...
JUDENSCHREINSBUCH – Collection of deeds belonging to Jews in the St. Lawrence parish of the city of Cologne (Germany); since the thirteenth century they have been kept in a separate alcove; later on they were bound into book form. The Jewish deeds...
JUDAH BEN MENAHEM – Italian liturgical poet; lived, probably at Rome, in the middle of the twelfth century; father of the Roman dayyan Menahem ben Judah. He was the author of fourteen piyyuṭim, of which some are to be found in the printed Roman...
JUDAH BEN NATHANAEL – French liturgical poet; lived at Beaucaire in the first quarter of the thirteenth century. Al-Ḥarizi, who became acquainted with him about 1211, praises him highly. Judah had five sons: Samuel, Ezra, Isaac, Isaiah, and...
JUDAH IBN SHABBETHAI – Spanish poet of the end of the twelfth century. He has been identified with the physician Judah b. Isaac of Barcelona, who is praised as a poet by Al-Ḥarizi (ch. 46), but he may also have lived at Burgos. He is a master of the...
JUDAH B. SHENEOR OF EVREUX – French liturgical poet of the thirteenth century. He maintained a correspondence with Jacob b. Solomon of Courson (c. 1260). According to Carmoly, he was the brother of Moses and Samuel of Evreux, and lived in Vendeuvre; but...
JUDAH SICILIANO – Italian poet of the fourteenth century. He earned a livelihood by giving lessons in poetry and by writing occasional poems; but none of his poetical productions has been preserved. He composed a riming dictionary, preserved in...
JUDAH B. ZIPPORI – Instigator of an uprising against Herod the Great. Shortly before the latter's death two prominent scribes of Jerusalem, one of whom was Judah b. Zippori (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 6, § 2, has Σαριφαῖος; "B. J." i. 33, § 2, has...
JUDAS THE ESSENE – Saint renowned for his prophetic powers in the time of King Aristobulus (105-104 B.C.). Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 11, § 2; "B. J." i. 3, § 5) relates the following characteristic story concerning him: Judas had foretold that the...
JUDAS MACCABEUS – Son of the priest Mattathias, and, after his father's death, leader against the Syrians. When he entered on the war he must have been in the prime of his manhood. At first he did not fight pitched battles, but made unexpected...
JUDE, DER – Periodische Blätter für Religion und Gewissensfreiheit: Weekly magazine published in Altona, Germany, from April 10, 1832, to Dec. 31, 1833, by Gabriel Riesser. Its chief aim was to agitate for the social emancipation of the...
JUDENSCHULE (Schola Judæorum) – The usual German expression for "synagogue" in medieval times. It seems to have been first used in the charter of Frederick II. of Austria, issued 1244 (Scherer, "Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden," etc., p. 182), wherein wilful...
JÜDISCHE PRESSE, DIE – Organ für die Gesammt-Interessen des Judenthums: Weekly periodical published in Berlin since 1869. Its editors have been S. Enoch and Israel Hildesheimer and his son Hirsch Hildesheimer. At various times I. Holländer, S. Meyer,...
JÜDISCHE TURNZEITUNG – A Jewish monthly; published in Berlin by Herman Jalowicz as the official organ of the Jüdischer Turnverein Bar Kochba. The first number appeared July, 1900. Its object is to advance the physical education of the Jewish race by...
JÜDISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR WISSENSCHAFT UND LEBEN – Quarterly publication issued in Breslau from 1862 to 1873 (11 vols.) by Abraham Geiger. It was originally Geiger's intention to call it "Zeitschrift Biblischer und Jüdischer Wissenschaft," and he was partly led to issue the...
JULIAN THE APOSTATE (FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS) – Roman emperor; born Nov. 17, 331; reigned from Nov., 361, till June, 363.The recognition of Christianity as the religion of the state by Constantine the Great, uncle of Julian, about the year 312 had resulted in an increase of...
JULIAN THE APOSTATE (FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS) – Roman emperor; born Nov. 17, 331; reigned from Nov., 361, till June, 363.The recognition of Christianity as the religion of the state by Constantine the Great, uncle of Julian, about the year 312 had resulted in an increase of...
JULIAN OF TOLEDO – Primate of Spain; born in Toledo (where he was also baptized); died in 690. He was the first of the long list of ecclesiastical princes who were of the Jewish race and who opposed and persecuted their former coreligionists. That...