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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ARMAVIR – The old capital of Armenia, on the southeastern slope of Mount Ahaghöz, said to have been founded by King Armais in 1980 B.C. Moses of Chorene (fifth century) has the tradition that when King Vaharshak settled in Armavir (149...
ARMENIA – In the Bible. Formerly a kingdom of western Asia, now (1902) apportioned among Russia, Turkey, and Persia. According to the Peshiṭta and Targum Onkelos, the "Minni" of the Bible (Jer. li. 27) is Armenia—or rather a part of that...
ARMLEDER PERSECUTIONS – A series of persecutions by a band of marauders who in 1338-39 massacred a large number of Jews in Alsace. In 1336 a nobleman of Franconia, pretending that an angel had commissioned him to do so, gathered a band of desperadoes...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ARNHEM – Early History. A city of Holland, situated on the Rhine about fifty miles southeast of Amsterdam. No Jews are mentioned in the records of the city prior to 1404. In that year two Jews are mentioned as having passed through...
ARNOLD – Cardinal-bishop of Cologne; died April 3, 1151. One of the few prelates who, during the Crusades, protected the Jews from the violence of the mob. When, during the Second Crusade, the inflammatory sermons of the French monk...
ARNOLD OF CÎTEAUX – Cistercian monk, who, with the sanction of Pope Innocent III. (1198-1216), incited a crusade against the Albigenses and Jews of southern France, and occasioned the attack of Simon de Montfort on Viscount Raymund Roger. The...
ARNSTADT – Capital of the German principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, on the River Gera. In 1264 (Aug. 5 and 7) there were outbreaks here against the Jews, in which five were slain (the learned R. Shabbethai ben Samuel; Joseph and...
ARRAGEL, MOSES – Spanish rabbi; flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century at Maqueda and Guadalfajara, Castile. The name is the Arabic al-Rijal (Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 610); according to H. Derenbourg ("Journal des...
ARRAS – Chief city of the department of Pasde-Calais, capital of the ancient Artois, France. According to Gross, the name of this city appears in a very curious Hebrew document (De Rossi, MS. No. 563, 23), which relates that Robert the...
ARROYO, ISAAC BEN MOSES – Lived in Salonica toward the end of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Maḳhil Ḳohelet" (The Preacher Preaching) and "TanḦumot El" (Consolations of God), philosophical expositions of Ecclesiastes and the Pentateuch (Salonica, 1597,...
ARSACES – Parthian king; according to some scholars, the sixth of that name, mentioned in I Macc. xiv. 2-3, as having entrapped Demetrius, who had rebelled against him. Demetrius married a daughter of Arsaces and, according to Josephus...
ARTA – Chief city of the nomarchy of Arthamania, Greece; situated on the Arta, about 7 miles from its mouth. It is the ancient Ambracia, called by the casuists of the sixteenth century Acarnania, and assigned to the Morea. In 1890 it...
ARTABAN V. – Last of the Parthian kings; died in the year 227. He was the son of Volageses V., whose throne he ascended about 216, after a struggle with his brother Volageses VI. For many years he successfully conducted a war against the...
ARTAXERXES I – Sources of Information. King of Persia; ascended the throne in 465 B.C., and died in 425 B.C. In the Persian name Artakhshathra ("he whose empire is perfected") the "thr" (written with a special sign in Persian) is pronounced...
ARTAXERXES II – originally Arsakes, surnamed Mnemon by the Greeks): The eldest son of Darius II.; succeeded his father in 404 B.C. (Diodorus, xiii. 108), and adopted the name of his grandfather Artaxerxes. He reigned until 359; that is, 46...
ARTAXERXES III. – A son of Artaxerxes II. He originally bore a name which in Babylonian was written "Umasu" (and therefore in the Ptolemaic canon, as given by Elias of Nisibis, the form is found). He was called Ochus by the Greeks. After he had...
ARTEMION – Leader of the Jewish insurrection in Cyprus against Trajan, 117. There are but scanty details of this revolt. According to Roman sources, the Jews destroyed the capital of the island of Salamis and slew 240,000 Greeks. The...
ARUVAS (AROVAS), ISAAC – Rabbi and author; son of R. Hananiah Aruvas; lived in the seventeenth century. He filled the office of rabbi in several African communities, and later settled in Venice. He is the author of "Emet we-Emunah" (Truth and Faith), a...
ARUVAS, MOSES BEN JOSEPH – A physician and translator; lived in Cyprus and Damascus in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He translated Aristotle's "Theology," a pseudepigraphic work, from the Arabic into Italian. This translation, made at the request...
ASAD – One of the two Arabian-Jewish rabbis that are said to have instructed the Tobba' Abu Karibah (king of Yemen) in the tenets of the Jewish religion. The name of the other was Ka'b; and both belonged to the tribe of the Banu...
AS'AD AL-DIN, YA'ḲUB IBN ISḤAḲ AL-MAḤALLI – Egyptian physician; lived in Cairo toward the end of the twelfth century and at the beginning of the thirteenth. He was born in al-MaḦallah, a city between Cairo and Damietta. Ibn Abi Usaibia, in his history of the Arabic...
ASAHEL, ḤAYYIM – Rabbi and author who lived in Salonica during the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the son of Benjamin Asahel, the chief rabbi of that city. Ḥayyim Asahel was the author of a Hebrew work entitled "Sam Ḥayyai" (Spice...
ASAPH BEN BERECHIAH – One of the captive Levites carried off to Assyria (I Chron. vi. 24 [A. V. 39]), and whom Arabic and later Jewish legend says was Vezir of Solomon (Al-Nadim, "Kitab-al-Fihrist," i. 19; Jellinek, "B. H." v. 23). To him is ascribed...