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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
JULIANUS – Leader of a Samaritan rebellion at Nablus in 530 against the Romans; son of Samaron or Sabarona or, according to another reading, Sahir. Julianus took the title of king or emperor, and wore a diadem and other insignia of...
JULIUS ARCHELAUS – Son of Chelcias ("Ant." xix. 9, § 1; xx. 7, § 1 [without "Julius"]), and, to judge from his name, a Hellenized Jew, probably of a rich and noble family. He was chosen by King Agrippa I. as husband for his first daughter,...
JUS PRIMÆ NOCTIS – Alleged seigniorial right to marital privileges. The feudal lords had the right of giving heiresses in marriage, and there appear to be traces of still more intimate rights over the daughters of tenants, though this has been...
JUSTINIAN – Rebellion of the Samaritans. Emperor of the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire from 527 to 565. During his long reign he issued many decrees relating to the Jews, and his empire was the scene of bloody events which were of the...
JUSTO (ẒADDIḲ), JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – Portuguese chartographer; flourished in Palestine (Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i., No. 1097) in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of a chart of Palestine, written in Portuguese under the title "Relação do...
JUSTUS, DR – Convert to Christianity and writer against the Jews; born at Costinasti, Rumania, about 1860. Until the age of twenty he lived at Buczacz, a small village in eastern Galicia. Leaving his wife and children, he went to Berlin and...
JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS – With Josephus in Galilee. Historical writer and one of the leaders of the Jews against the Romans in Galilee in the year 66. What is known of him comes mostly from his political and literary enemy, Josephus Flavius; so that an...
KA'B AL-AḤBAR – One of the most prominent fathers of Moslem tradition, and one of those who introduced into this branch of Arab literature the method as well as many details of the Jewish Haggadah; died 32 or 35 a.h. (652 or 655 C.E.). Of his...
KA'B AL-ASHRAF – Jewish poet of Medina and an implacable enemy of Mohammed. His father was an Arab of the family of Nabhan (a branch of the tribe of Ṭayy), but his mother was a Jewess of the Banu al-Naḍir. His father having died early, Ka'b was...
KAHINAH DAHIYAH BINT THABITAH IBN TIFAN – Jewish princess of a Berber tribe likewise called Kahinah; lived in the second half of the seventh century. According to the Mohammedan historians, the most powerful tribe at the time of the Arab invasion of the Maghreb was the...
KAHIYA – Title of a political representative in Turkey. The word, pronounced "kehya" or "kyahya," is Turkish and is a corruption of the Persian "ketkhoda." It means "head man," or representative in a small village where the people...
KAIRWAN – Foundation of City. City in the regency of Tunis, thirty miles inland from Susa, and about eighty miles south of the capital. Next to Tunis, it is the largest and most populous city in the country, and is the "Mecca" of North...
KALIFA, MOSES BEN MALKA – Poet and controversialist; born at Safi, Morocco, toward the end of the seventeenth century. He belonged on his mother's side to the Bedersi family of Provence. Left an orphan at an early age with an income sufficient for his...
KALLAH – Name of a teachers' convention which was held in Babylonian academies, after the beginning of the amoraic period, in the two months Adar and Elul. The original meaning of the word is not known. It is always written with ה ( ),...
KALOMITI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES – Turkish scholar of the fifteenth century. To him is attributed the rationalistic commentary on Job found in manuscript in the Bodleian Library (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2243). In this commentary (fol. 57) the author...
KALONYMUS – A prominent family (originally from Lucca, Italy), which, after the settlement at Mayence and Speyer of several of its members, took during many generations a leading part in the development of Jewish learning in Germany. The...
KALONYMUS BEN DAVID BEN TODROS – French translator; lived in the first half of the fourteenth century. He translated (after 1328) from the Arabic into Hebrew, under the title "Happalat ha-Happalah," the treatise of Averroes against Ghazali's "Tahafut...
KALONYMUS BEN GERSHON – German Talmudist of the thirteenth century. He was a contemporary of Eleazar of Worms and Menahem ben Jacob, with whom he disputed concerning a halakic decision. The controversy is quoted by Mordecai ben Hillel ("Mordekai,"...
KALONYMUS BEN JUDAH – Italian physician; born in Naples; lived at Venice in the first half of the sixteenth century. He attained a high reputation in the Christian world by the following translations into Latin made by him: Zerahiah ha-Levi's Hebrew...
KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEÏR – Provençal philosopher and translator; born at Arles 1286; died after 1328. He was a descendant of a prominent Provençal family, several members of which held high positions among the Jews. The father of Kalonymus and Kalonymus...
KALONYMUS BEN MESHULLAM – Head of the community of Mayence at the time of the first Crusade. He is said to have sent a messenger to King Henry IV. in Italy, in consequence of which the king promulgated an order throughout his realm to the effect that the...
KALONYMUS NASI – Provençal liturgical poet; flourished at Beaucaire in the middle of the thirteenth century. He was the author of a liturgical poem beginning for the Sabbath preceding the Feast of Passover ("Shabbat ha-Gadol"), in which are...
KALONYMUS BEN SHABBETHAI – Halakist, exegete, and liturgical poet; born at Rome about 1030. His father was president of the Jewish community, and his reputation as a Talmudic authority extended far beyond the boundaries of his native country. Halakic...
KALONYMUS BEN TODROS – French scholar; flourished at Narbonne in the second half of the twelfth century. He bore the title "Nasi," and was the leader of the community when Benjamin of Tudela visited Narbonne in 1165. He and his cousin Levi b. Moses...
KAMMERKNECHTSCHAFT – Expression for the political condition of the Jews in the German empire, signifying that the revenue derived from them was a royalty of the emperor and belonged to his private treasury ("camera"). Consquently the emperor not...