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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ASCARELLI, DEBORAH – Italian poetess, and wife of Giuseppi Ascarelli; lived at Venice at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century.As early as 1560 Deborah was known in Rome as a poetess of talent. She translated into...
ASCOLI, DAVID D' – Italian writer; lived about the middle of the sixteenth century. He wasthe author of "Apologia Hebræorum," published at Strasburg in 1559, in which he protested against the decree of Pius IV. commanding all Jews in Catholic...
ASHER BEN JACOB HA-LEVI – Talmudic lexicographer; lived in Osnabrück, Prussia, toward the end of the thirteenth century. His father was probably the "Jacob ha-Levi" mentioned by Eliezer ha-Darshan as his teacher, and his nephew was Isaac ben Judah...
ASHER BEN LEVI – Legendary boy convert and, subsequently,Christian martyr; lived toward the end of the fourth century in Sinjar, between Nisibis and Mosul in Mesopotamia. He was born of Jewish parents. As a boy he lived all alone and was shunned...
ASHER BEN SAUL (Ha-Kohen) OF LUNEL – French writer on ritual; lived in the fourteenth century. He wrote a work upon the various rites current among the Jews, entitled, "Sefer ha-Minhagot," which exists in manuscript in the Cambridge (England) University Library...
ASHER BEN SIMEON – Religious poet of Germany, who lived at a period not later than 1546. He wrote a selihah (penitential poem) entitled , which is not to be confounded with a similar selihah by Kalonymus ben Judah (Zunz, "S. P." p. 255). In this...
ASHKENAZI, AZRIEL B. JOSEPH – Printer at Naples, 1491-92. From his printing-house the first editions of Avicenna's "Canon" and BaḦya's "Ḥobot ha-Leba bot" were issued.Bibliography: De Rossi, Annales Hebrœo-Typographici, etc., p. 177; Mortara, Indice...
ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER B. SOLOMON – Rabbinical scholar; born in Poland about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and resided afterward in Tunis. He published at Metz in 1845, under the title "Dibre Ḥakamim" (The Words of the Wise), a selection of eleven...
ASHURA – A fast-day among the Mohammedans, observed on the tenth day of the month MuḦarram, and derived from the Jewish Day of Atonement, celebrated on the tenth of Tishri (Lev. xvi. 29, xxiii. 27). The name is an Aramaic form of the...
ASIA – The largest continent, and the most ancient seat of civilization, constituting the greater part of the Eastern hemisphere.The Jews in Palestine. The earliest record that makes mention of the Hebrew people—the triumphal stele of...
ASIA MINOR – The western extremity of Asia, which seems to have been known to the Jews at a relatively early date; for to this region belong the greater number of the sons of Japhet mentioned in the ethnographic lists in Gen. x. Von...
ASMA – Arab poetess, contemporary with Mohammed; daughter of Marwan; was married to an Arab of the tribe of the Banu Ḥatmah. After the murder of the Jewish poet Abu 'Afak, who, in spite of his great age, had instigated the members of...
ASSABAN – Rabbi and author; born at Morocco in 1700 and died at Aleppo about 1760. He was chief rabbi of Leghorn, and emigrated to Jerusalem about 1729, where he dwelt for thirty years. He was the author of a "Widdui" (confession of...
ASTI – Town in the province of Alessandria, Italy, on the left bank of the Tanaro; population 32,000. Although now of no great importance, in the Middle Ages Asti was a center of commerce and the capital of one of the most powerful...
ASTRONOMY – Biblical Data: Biblical Astronomy, in the broad sense, includes the views taken in the books of the Bible of the position of the earth in the universe, the designation of the stars, planets, fixed stars, and the views held...
ASTRUC – A prænomen used frequently by Jews in southern France and eastern Spain; used to this day as a family name in France. It is derived from the Provençal astruc, "happy" (compare benastruc and malastruc, and the Spanish astrugo,...
ASTRUC DÉS GABBAI – Provençal scholar; lived at Béziers toward the end of the thirteenth century and the beginning of the fourteenth. Nothing is known of his life and his scientific activity. His name was transmitted by his relative, or perhaps by...
ATEL – The capital of the Chazars in the tenth century; situated about eight English miles from Astrakhan. Together with the city of Balanjara, which was equally renowned in ancient times, it is now buried under the highest of the...
ATHANASIUS – Bishop of Alexandria; born in 293, probably in Alexandria; died there May 2, 373. Athanasius was the greatest combatant of the Old Church. No less than twenty out of the forty-seven years of his official life (he was made bishop...
ATHENS, ANCIENT – The principal city of Greece, situated five miles from its seaport, Piræus, on the Saronic gulf. When, as a result of the Persian wars, Athens attained the hegemony of the eastern Mediterranean, it was already one of the most...
ATHENS, MODERN – The Jewish community of Athens is hardly thirty years old. One of the oldest families, if not the oldest, is that of Max Rothschild, a Bavarian Jew, who went to Greece in 1833 with King Otho. The community had neither synagogue...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...