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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
XYSTUS – A building in Jerusalem, erected, as is shown by the name, in the Hellenistic period, probably under the Herodians. The term properly denotes a covered colonnade in the gymnasia, although the Romans employed the word "xystus" to...
YANNAI – Palestinian amora of the first generation (2d and 3d cent.). A genealogical chart found at Jerusalem traced his descent from Eli (Yer. Ta'an. iv. 2; Gen. R. xcviii. 13). Yannai was very wealthy; he is said to have planted four...
ZADOK – 1. A priest, perhaps the high priest during the reign of David. He was the son of Ahitub (II Sam. viii. 17), but the attempt to trace his genealogy back to Eleazar, the third son of Aaron, as opposed to Abiathar, his...
ẒARFATI, ẒAREFATI – Epithet frequently applied in rabbinical literature to Jews of French birth or descent. Among those so called may be mentioned: Meïr Ẓarfati, whom Carmoly sought to identify with the Meïr ha-Kohen of Narbonne who emigrated to...
ZIONISM – Movement looking toward the segregation of the Jewish people upon a national basis and in a particular home of its own; specifically, the modern form of the movement that seeks for the Jews "a publicly and legally assured home...