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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHRIBIS – A city, during the Ptolemaic period, in Lower Egypt on the Damietta arm of the Nile near the present Benḥa (Benḥa al-Asi), south-west of Zagazeeg. On the hill near Benḥa there are vestiges of the old city of Athribis. A Jewish...
ATHRONGES – Leader of the Jews during the insurrection under Archelaus (4 B.C.—6 C. E.). A shepherd and bold adventurer, without any other claim to power but that of gigantic strength and stature, he managed, in common with his four...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
AUBRIOT, HUGUES – A provost of Paris, France; born at Dijon; died in Burgundy in 1382. He was in office at the accession of Charles VI. (1380), when the populace, irritated beyond endurance by the taxes levied upon them, demanded of the king that...
AUERBACH, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN MESHULLAM SOLOMON – Austrian rabbi, banker, and commentator; born in Vienna at the beginning of the seventeenth century; died at Krotoschin, Posen, July 8, 1689. He was descended from the well-known Auerbach-Fischhof family, both his father,...
AUGSBURG – Capital of the districts of Swabia and Neuburg, Bavaria. According to tradition, it is one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany. The first documentary mention of the city is in 1259; but individual Jews of Augsburg are...
AUGUSTI, FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT – German author; born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1691; died at Eschberge May 13, 1782. He received the usual Jewish education of that time. According to a biography, printed anonymously during his lifetime and probably inspired...
AUGUSTINE – His Complex Character. The greatest and most important of the Latin church fathers; born Nov. 13, 354, at Tagaste, a town of Numidia; died at Hippo Aug. 28, 430. After a riotous youth as a heathen, he became first a devotee of...
AUGUSTUS – The first Roman emperor that bore the honorary title of "Augustus"; born Sept. 23, 63 B.C.; died at Nola, Campania, Aug. 19, 14 C.E. He was the son of Caius Octavius. In his attitude toward the Jews he continued the friendly...
AURUM CORONARIUM – A tax paid to the emperor by all the Roman provinces. Originally it was a voluntary contribution toward the golden crown to be offered to those to whom a "triumph" was given, and to the emperors (compare Cicero, "In Pisonem,"...
AUS OF ḲURAIẒA – A poet belonging to the Jewish tribe of Ḳuraiẓa in Medina. When this tribe was besieged by Mohammed, the wife of Aus saved her life by embracing Islam and summoned her husband to do likewise. He refused to follow her example,...
AUTO DA FÉ – Portuguese form of the Spanish "auto de fé" (in French, "acte de foi," from the Latin "actus fidei"), the solemn proclamation and subsequent execution of a judgment rendered by the Court of the Inquisition on "reos," or persons...
AVIGNON – Early History. The Synagogue at Avignon.(From a photograph.) Capital of the department of Vaucluse, France; formerly seat of the papal court. The first settlement of Jews in Avignon goes back probably to the second century of...
AVILA – Town in Old Castile, fifteen miles from Madrid. In the Middle Ages it was one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Spain. Jews have resided there since 1085, when they dwelt in the street called "Calle de Lomo" (now...
AVLONA – Varying names of a town and seaport of Albania, on the Gulf of Avlona, on the Adriatic. From early times there seems to have been a flourishing Jewish community in the place. Messer David Leon, born about 1470, son of the...
AWANI, ISḤAḲ IBN AL- – Head of the Academy of Bagdad until displaced by a rival; lived in the thirteenth century. He was a contemporary of Al-Ḥarizi, who seems to have made much fun of him. Referring to his displacement from his academical position,...
AZANḲOṬ (V02p361003.jpg), SAADIA B. LEVI – Orientalist of Morocco; lived in Holland in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was teacher of Jewish literature to Hottinger. There exists a versified paraphrase of Esther by him, which was printed under the title...
AZARIA BEN JOSEPH IBN ABBA MARI – One of the last Jewish writers coming from Perpignan, France. He flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century. A rising against the Jews was the cause of his leaving his native city. Neubauer ("Ecrivains Juifs," p. 759;...