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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
AZARIAS – General in the army of Judas Maccabeus, who, together with Joseph, son of Zacharias, was left in command of the Judean army (165 B.C.) when Judas and Jonathan were absent in Gilead and Simon in Galilee. Orders had been given to...
AZHAROT – The "613" Precepts. Liturgical poems treating of the precepts of the Law. The Babylonian Talmud (Mak. 23b) contains an utterance by R. Simlai to the effect that "613 commandments were revealed to Moses: 365, equal to the number...
AZORES – Group of islands in the Atlantic ocean, northwest of Africa, belonging to Portugal. It was a place of refuge for the Jews expelled from that country. At present Ponta Delgada, the capital of the island of São Miguel, Fayal,...
AZUBIB, JOSEPH B. NEHORAI – Rabbi at Algiers; died at Blida, Algeria, January, 1794. At an early age he assisted his father in his duties as rabbi of Algiers; and at the death of the latter succeeded him. He published a work under the title "Yamim Aḥadim"...
AZUBIB, NEHORAI B. SAADIA – Rabbi at Algiers; died October, 1785. He composed several prayers for the anniversary instituted by the community in commemoration of the repulse of O'Reilly's expedition against Algiers in 1775. Some Arabic poems of his figure...
BABA (THE GREAT) – Son of Nathaniel and grandson of Aḳbun, the high priests; a prominent leader and high priest of the Samaritans in the time of the emperor Constantine (fourth century). According to Samaritan traditions (see Neubauer, "Chronique...
BABA BUCH – Judæo-German translation or adadaptation by Elijah Levita of an Italian version of the Anglo-Roman romance, "Sir Bevis of Hamton." The Italian version of this, entitled "Buovo d'Antona," was very popular—no less than thirty...
BABENHAUSEN – A city of Hesse, district of Starkenburg, Germany. Jews are reported to have resided here as early as 1320. At the request of the nobleman Arrosius von Breuberg, certain Jews were placed under the ban, and all intercourse...
BABINOVICHI – Town in the district of Orsha, government of Mohilev, Russia. In 1900, in a total population of 1,143 the Jews numbered about 800.G. H. R.
BABYLON – Biblical Data: The chief city of Babylonia, long the capital of the kingdom and empire that controlled the whole or a large part of the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates.In Hebrew Tradition. This city has several names or...
BABYLONIA – General Data: A country in western Asia of varying limits at different periods. The natural boundaries were the Persian gulf on the south, the Tigris on the east, and the Arabian desert on the west. On the north the boundary...
BACCHIDES – Syrian general; friend of the Syrian king Demetrius; and "ruler in the country beyond the river"—Euphrates. Demetrius sent him in 161 B.C. to Judea with a large army, in order to invest the recreant Alcimus with the office of...
BACHARACH – City in the Prussian government district of Coblenz. On April 19, 1283, twenty-six Jews were murdered there, among them the boy Hezekiah, whose father, Jacob, had been killed at Lorch in 1276. In 1287 the Bacharach Jews were...
BADEN, GRAND DUCHY OF – A state of the German empire, bounded on the north by Bavaria and Hesse; on the east by Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hohenzollern; on the south by Switzerland, and on the west by Alsace-Lorraine and Rhenish Bavaria. Owing to the...
BADIS (Muzaffar Nasir) – Oldest son of King Habus of Granada, whom he succeeded in 1038. In a struggle with the Berbers, who wished to make his younger brother, Bologguin, king, he was supported by the Arabs and by his vizier, Samuel ibn Nagdela. After...
BAER, BEER, BEHR – Jewish prænomen and family name, derived from the German "Bär" (bear). The Jews of Germany, like those of other countries, borrowed their names from their non-Jewish fellow-citizens; chiefly when equivalents of these names could...
BAER, SELIGMAN (SEKEL) – Writer on the Masorah, and editor of the Hebrew Bible; born at Mosbach (Baden), Sept. 18, 1825; died at Biebrich-on-the-Rhine, March, 1897.As early as 1844, Baer commenced his Masoretic studies. He belonged to the school of Wolf...
BAERMANN OF LIMBURG – German writer; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the end of the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the eighteenth. He published (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1712) a Judæo-German play, with the Hebrew title "Mekirat Yosef"...
BAEZA – City in the province of Jaen, Spain, which, as early as the Moorish rule, had a considerable Jewish community that suffered greatly during the war between Castile and Mohammed al-Naṣir in 1212. In 1391 there was great slaughter...
BAGDAD – Under the Abbassid Califs. Capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name, which is situated in lower Mesopotamia on both sides of the Tigris. The vilayet formerly extended from Diabekr to Yemen, with the Persian frontier as...
BAGDAD – Under the Abbassid Califs. Capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name, which is situated in lower Mesopotamia on both sides of the Tigris. The vilayet formerly extended from Diabekr to Yemen, with the Persian frontier as...
BAGÉ-LA VILLE – Village in the canton Bagéle-Chalet, department of Ain, France. It was inhabited by Jews in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; and in 1331 they were divided into elder and younger.Bibliography: Inventaire Sommaire des...
BAGI – A prominent Karaite family; lived in Constantinople in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries. The family name, which is variously written Badschi (Fürst, "Geschichte des Karäerthums," iii. 14), Pegi, Poki...
BAGOAS – 1. General of the Persian king Artaxerxes Ochus (359-338 B.C.); is called "Bagoses" by Josephus ("Ant." xi. 7, § 1). He interfered in the Jewish party struggles, and forced an entrance into the sanctuary. 2. Eunuch of Herod the...
BAGRATUNI – The ancestors of the Armenian-Georgian family of Bagration, the first family entered in the list of the Russian nobility (published by Count Aleksandr Bobrinsky, under the title "Dvoryanskie Rody," St. Petersburg, 1890). The...