JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BAḤIEL – A physician of the thirteenth century. He was court physician to King James I. of Aragon, and in that capacity was present at the conquest of Majorca, where he rendered valuable service as interpreter between the Arabic-speaking...
BAHRAM TSHUBIN – Persian general; king of Persia from June 27, 590, to June 26, 591. Hormiz IV. (578-590), through his cruelty, brought the empire to the brink of destruction. His subjects were dissatisfied; and the political enemies of Persia...
BAḤUR – A youth," particularly a student of the Talmud among the Ashkenazic Jews; called also "yeshibah baḥur" (academy youth), and in Yiddish, "orem boḥer" (poor young man). In Biblical Hebrew the word signifies an adult but unmarried...
BAIERSDORF, SAMSON BEN MANASSE – Court Jew of the margrave Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth; died in 1712. He was highly esteemed at the court of the margrave, at the same time using his influence for the good of his coreligionists. It was chiefly...
BAILLY, JEAN-SYLVAIN – Astronomer and publicist; born in Paris Sept. 15, 1736; guillotined Nov. 12, 1793. He was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1763 and of the Académie Française in 1784. In 1789 he was elected by the citizens of...
BAJAZET II. – Turkish sultan; born 1447; succeeded in 1481; died 1512. During his reign the Jews enjoyed a period of complete and uninterrupted peace, which was reflected in the flourishing condition of Jewish culture and letters. Under...
BAK – A family of Hebrew printers in Italy and Prague, who exercised their craft for two centuries. The name is said to be an abbreviation of "Bene Ḳedoshim" (Children of the Holy), an assumption, however, which is somewhat...
BAKEWELL HALL – A large building in the neighborhood of the Guildhall, London, on the site now occupied by Gresham College. In a document at the British Museum (Add. MS. 4542, f. 37), a synagogue of the Jews is described as being on the same...
BAKHCHI-SARAI – Former residence of the Tatar khans (fifteenth century to 1783); now a town in the government of Taurida (Crimea), Russia, situated on the rivulet Churuksu, nearly midway between Simferopol and Sebastopol. In a total population...
BALANCE – The word is used for three Hebrew words: (1) "mo'znaim" (Jer. xxxii. 10; Job vi. 2; Ps. lxii. 9; Isa. xl. 12, 15; Lev. xix. 36; Job xxxi. 6; Prov. xi. 11, etc.). (2) "ḳaneh" (Isa. xlvi. 6), and (3) "peles" (Prov. xvi. 11). The...
BALI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB – Karaite physician and ḥazan; lived at Foli ( ?) in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was the pupil of Shabbethai ben Melkiel Cohen, and the author of the following works, for the most part still in manuscript (St....
BALLADS ON JEWISH SUBJECTS – In the folk-poetry of Europe a certain number of ballads deal with Jewish subjects or with Jewish persons. Of these may be mentioned a Neo-Greek ballad on a Jewess given in Fauriel, "Chantes Néohelliniques"; but the ballads...
BAMBERG – City in Upper Franconia, Bavaria. As early as the beginning of the eleventh century Jews had settled at Bamberg. In the second half of the twelfth century Benjamin of Tudela, at the end of his "Travels," mentions its large...
BAMBERG, SAMUEL – Halakist and liturgist; lived about 1220. He was born in Metz, where he attended the rabbinical school, and was one of the best-known German Talmudic scholars. His teachers were his father, Baruch ben Samuel, the well-known poet...
BANU AUS – An Arab tribe that came to Medina together with the Banu Khazraj (about 300), and settled there among the Jewish inhabitants of the place. For some time they lived under Jewish protection and intermarried with them; but,...
BANU BAḤDAL – A Jewish tribe in Medina which dwelt with the Banu Ḳuraiẓa. There is some uncertainty as to the correctness of the name, as the sources give also the names "Ḥadal" and "Ḥandal."G. H. Hir.
BANU ḲAINUḲA'A – A Jewish tribe in north Arabia, apparently the first Jews that settled at Medina, and the most powerful of all the Jewish tribes of the peninsula before Islam. They formed a gild of goldsmiths. They had also a market-place,...
BANU ḲURAIẓA – One of the Jewish tribes in Medina that, like the Banu al-Naḍir, seem to have consisted chiefly of descendants of Aaron. They inhabited the villages Maḥzūr, Bir Abba, and Buath on the eastern side of Medina; and also held...
BANU AL-NAḌIR – A Jewish tribe in Medina. It appears to have been chiefly composed of priestly families, as this, together with the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, was styled "Alkahinan" (The Two Priests). Their habitations were situated in the northern environs...
BANUS – A teacher of Josephus ("Vita," § 2, Bάνος; in ed. Niese, Bάννος). He "lived in the desert, used no other clothing than grew upon trees, had no other food than what grew of its own accord, and bathed himself in cold water...
BAR GIORA, SIMON – Jewish leader in the revolt against Rome; born about the year 50, at Gerasa. To judge from his name he was the son of a proselyte. The date of his birth is determined by the fact that he wasvery young at the time of the war with...
BAR KOKBA AND BAR KOKBA WAR – War of Quietus. The insurrection of the Jews of Cyrene, Cyprus, and Egypt in the last years of the emperor Trajan had not been entirely suppressed when Hadrian assumed the reins of government in 118. The seat of war was...
BARASSA, DIEGO – Spanish physician and Marano, who openly avowed himself a Jew at Amsterdam about 1640. He was conversant with astronomy, medicine, and botany, and was acquainted with Arabic and Syriac. Manasseh b. Israel dedicated to him the...
BARATIER, JEAN PHILIPPE – Christian translator of Benjamin of Tudela's travels; born at Schwabach, Bavaria, in 1721; died in 1740. He was only thirteen years old when he published his first work, "Voyages de Rabbi Benjamin Fils de Jona de Tudèle....
BARBASTRO, BARBASTE – A city of Aragon, containing a Jewish community with special privileges that were confirmed by successive kings from time to time (as late as 1336). In 1257, this community was so poor that the king found it necessary to reduce...