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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
CHERKASSY – District town in the government of Kiev, Russia, situated on the right bank of the Dnieper, about 126 miles from Kiev.The date of the establishment of the Jewish community of Cherkassy is not known. Being the chief town of the...
CHERNEVTZY – Town in the government of Podolia, Russia; it has (1898) a population of about 15,000, including about 2,000 Jews. Of the latter, 267 are artisans, but most of them earn a livelihood as small tradesmen. In the local...
CHERNIGOV – A city in Russia; capital of the government of the same name. The Jewish settlement at Chernigov is one of the oldest of the Ukraine. In the thirteenth century a rabbi, Isaac (Itze) of Chernigov, is mentioned, who spoke the...
CHERNIGOV – A government of Little Russia (Ukraine), with a Jewish population (1897) of 114,630 in a total population of 2,298,834, or nearly 5 per cent. In 1881 the Jewish inhabitants formed only 2.5 per cent of the total. By districts,...
CHIARINI, LUIGI – Italian abbé; born near Montepulciano, Italy, April 26, 1789; died at Warsaw Feb. 28, 1832. He was appointed professor of history and Oriental languages at the University of Warsaw, Poland (1826).Chiarini was a prominent member...
CHIGIRIN – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia, with a population (in 1897) of 9,870, including about 3,000 Jews. The latter are engaged principally in commerce and the handicrafts, the total number of artisans being 551. Tailoring is...
CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN ZINOVI – Hetman of the Zaporogian Cossacks, born about 1595; died at Chigirin Aug. 16, 1675. Unlike many other Little-Russian pupils of the Jesuits, Chmielnicki did not embrace Roman Catholicism, but early in life became a champion of...
CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH – Russian traveler; born at Minsk April 20, 1835; died at Odessa April 28, 1880. His parents destined him for the wine-growing industry; but after having been graduated as a viticulturalist, he, owing to an indomitable passion for...
CHUDNOV – Town in the government of Volhynia, Russia. A Jewish community existed here before the uprising of the Cossacks in 1648. In 1898 the town had nearly 8,000 inhabitants. Among them there were about 3,500 Jews, who were principally...
CHUFUT-KALE – Suburb of Bakhchiserai, a town in the government of Taurida, Russia. It is called by the Tatars "Kirk-er" (Place of Forty), and by the Karaites. to which sect the greater part of its inhabitants belong, "Sela' ha-Yehudim" (The...
CHWOLSON, DANIEL ABRAMOVICH – Russian Orientalist; born at Wilna Dec. 15, 1819. As he showed marked ability in the study of Hebrew and Talmud, his parents, who were very religious, destined him for the rabbinate, and placed him at the yeshibah of Rabbi...
CITRON, SAMUEL LÖB – Hebrew writer of fiction and literary critic; born at Minsk, Russia, May 24, 1862. He attended the rabbinical school at Wolozhin, and made his first appearance as a Hebrew author at the age of fourteen, in the periodical...
CLEIF, DANIEL ḤAYYIM – Russian rabbi; born in Amsterdam 1729; died there May 14, 1794. He settled in Hasenpoth, in the government of Courland, originally as a jeweler; later he officiated there as rabbi for many years. At this time he wrote "'Arugah...
COEN – Physician-in-ordinary at the court of Prince Vassile Lupu, hospodar of Moldavia from 1634 to 1654. The dates of his birth and death, and his given name, are unknown. E. Schwarzfeld is of the opinion that Coen was a descendant of...
COHEN, NAHUM – Russian journalist; born in 1863; died at Yekaterinoslav Jan. 27, 1893. His ghetto story, "V Glukhom Myestechkye" (In a Dull Townlet), published first in "Vyestnik Yevropy," Nov., 1892, appeared also in book form, Moscow, 1895....
COHEN, SHALOM BEN JACOB – Polish Hebraist; born at Meseritz (Mezhiryechye), Poland, Dec. 23, 1772; died at Hamburg Feb. 20, 1845. Prompted by a love for learning which he could not satisfy in Poland, he went to Berlin when only seventeen. There he became...
COHN, TOBIAS – Polish physician; born at Metz, Germany, 1652; died at Jerusalem 1729. His grandfather was the physician Eleazar Kohn, who emigrated from Palestine to Poland, and settled in Kamenetz-Podolsk, where he practised medicine until...
COMMERCE – Sale or exchange of goods, generally on a large scale. During the Biblical period the Hebrews in Palestine had what is known as a natural self-sufficing economy (Benzinger, "Arch." p. 213)—that is, each household grew or made...
COSSACKS' UPRISING – Since the fifteenth century, semi-military bands of Cossacks have been scattered over the steppes of southern and southeastern Russia, and have materially influenced the history of the Jews in that region. The Cossacks...
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
COUNCIL OF FOUR LANDS – The central body of Jewish autonomy in Poland for nearly two centuries—from the middle of the sixteenth to that of the eighteenth. The great number of the Jewish population of Poland, its importance in the industrial life of the...
COURLAND – A government in the Baltic provinces of Russia, bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea; on the northeast by the River Düna; and on the south by the government of Kovno. At the end of the eighteenth century the Jewish...
CRACOW – Fifteenth Century. A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Poland; founded about 700 C.E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cracow, but it is probable that the Jews...
CRIMEA – A peninsula of southern Russia, on the northern shore of the Black Sea. It was formerly known as Krim-Tartary, and in ancient times as Tauric Chersonese. As shown by inscriptions (see Bosporus) unearthed in various parts of the...
CYRIL – Apostle of the Slavonians and author of the Slavonic alphabet (Cyrillitza), which is probably a modification of an older Slavonic alphabet (Glagola); born at Salonica about 820; died in Rome Feb. 14 869. His baptismal name was...