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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
ANISIMOV, ILIA SHARBATOVICH – Russian civil engineer; born in Daghestan, 1853; received his first education in the house of his father, Dr. Sharbat ben Nisim, rabbi and president of the Daghestan community. He was graduated from the University of Moscow, and...
ANNA IVANOVNA – Empress of Russia; born Feb. 8, 1693; crowned 1730; died Oct. 28, 1740. After the death of Peter the Great (Feb. 8, 1725) a reactionary policy was inaugurated by his immediate successors, who were influenced by the Greek...
ANTOKOLSKI, MARK MATVEYEVICH – Russian sculptor; born in Wilna in 1842. As a young child he displayed a talent for art, and after a short term in the ḥeder (Hebrew school) applied himself to the study of carving in wood. Artistic carvings in wood executed by...
APOSTOL, DANIIL PAVLOVICH – Hetman of the Cossacks on both sides of the Dnieper; born in South Russia in 1658; died Dec. 15, 1734. When Catherine I. expelled the Jews from the Ukraine (Little Russia) and from other parts of the Russian empire, May 7, 1727,...
ARAG (ARAK) – Village in the district of Kyurin, Daghestan, Transcaucasia, Russia. When the traveler Judah Chorny visited the place in 1868, he found eighty Jewish families there, who lived in a separate part of the village. Their chief...
ARDASHAR – Village in the government of Erivan, Transcaucasia, Russia, about 16 miles South-southeast from the capital of Erivan; the site of the old Armenian capital Artaxata, or Artashat; Artaxata is said to have been built for King...
ARMAVIR – The old capital of Armenia, on the southeastern slope of Mount Ahaghöz, said to have been founded by King Armais in 1980 B.C. Moses of Chorene (fifth century) has the tradition that when King Vaharshak settled in Armavir (149...
ARMENIA – In the Bible. Formerly a kingdom of western Asia, now (1902) apportioned among Russia, Turkey, and Persia. According to the Peshiṭta and Targum Onkelos, the "Minni" of the Bible (Jer. li. 27) is Armenia—or rather a part of that...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ARTON, LÉOPOLD ÉMILE – French adventurer; born in Strasburg in 1849; settled in Paris in 1871. He was implicated in distributing among statesmen and politicians the bribes of the Panama Canal Company, which sought to secure the authorization of the...
ASEFAH – Technical term for the meetings of the members of the Jewish communities of Poland and Lithuania. In cases of importance, the director of the "kahal" ("parnes Ḧodesh") gave the order to the "shammash" of the "kahal-stübel" (the...
ASHER, LEMEL HA-LEVI – Polish Talmudic scholar; lived at the end of the eighteenth century. Together with his two sons, YeḦiel Michel ha-Levi of Glogau and Moses ha-Levi of Glogau, he wrote homilies on the Pentateuch, published in 1820 under the title...
ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Palestine ( ), born at Janishar, near Salonica, in 1813; died at Jerusalem Jan. 22, 1880. At the age of fifteen he was taken by his father to Jerusalem, where he studied rabbinical literature in the various...
ASHKENAZI, AZRIEL B. MOSES LEVI – Preacher at Tarnogrod, government of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "NaḦalat' Azriel" (The Inheritance of Azriel), Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1691, a work comprising homilies and comments upon parts...
ASHKENAZI, BENJAMIN – Russian communal worker and philanthropist; born in 1824; died at Grodno in 1894. He was the son of Joshua Heschel Ashkenazi, rabbi of Lublin, who was a descendant of Ḥakam Ẓebi. Ashkenazi settled at Grodno, where he became the...
ASHKENAZI, ISAAC BEN ẒEBI – Rabbi and author; born in Russia about the middle of the eighteenth century, and officiated as rabbi in Chodorow and Lemberg, in which latter place he died May 5, 1807. He was the author of the Hebrew works, "Or ha-Ner" (Light...
ASHKENAZI, MEÏR, OF KAFFA (CRIMEA) – Envoy of the Tatar khan in the sixteenth century; killed by pirates on a voyage from Gava (near Genoa) to Dakhel (probably Dakhel or Dakleh in the western oasis of Upper Egypt), between the 15th and the 25th day of Tammuz...
ASHKENAZI, MESHULLAM ZALMAN – Polish rabbi and man of letters; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; died at Lublin, Poland, May 1, 1843. He was the son of Rabbi Meshullam Zalman of Pomarin, whose family name was Orenstein, under which...
ASHKENAZI, REUBEN SELIG BEN ISRAEL ELIEZER – Rabbi and author; lived in Russia about 1780. He published "MaḦaneh Reuben" (Camp of Reuben), a commentary on the Talmud, Leghorn, 1777.Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 321; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2139;...
ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON BEN NATHAN – Court physician of King Sigismund II., Augustus of Poland (1548-72), and Turkish diplomat; born probably about 1520; died 1602. A descendant of a German family settled in Udine (Italy), he came in his early youth to Cracow,...
ASHKINASI, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH – Writer in French and Russian; born at Odessa April 16, 1851. Having graduated from the Odessa High School, he studied medicine at the Academy of St. Petersburg and at the University of Kiev. Ill health forced him to discontinue...
ASKENAZY, SIMON – Polish historian; born in 1867 at Zawichwost, government of Radom, in Russian Poland; studied at the universities of Warsaw and Göttingen, graduating from the latter with the degree of doctor of philosophy. In 1897 he was...
ASKNAZI, ISAAC LVOVICH – Russian painter; born at Drissa Jan. 28, 1856; died Dec. 21, 1902, at Moscow. He entered the St. Petersburg Academy in 1870 as a day-scholar, and was registered as a student in 1874. In the latter year he was awarded the second...
ASTRAKHAN – Capital of the government of the same name in Russia, situated on the left bank of the Volga, about sixty miles from the Caspian sea. It is generally supposed to have been built near the site of Atel (or Itil), the ancient...
ATAKI – Town in the province of Bessarabia, Russia, on the right bank of the Dniester, opposite Mohilev. Of the 1,000 families composing its population, 832 are Jews, that have a synagogue and three prayer-houses. Formerly Ataki was a...