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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BRAININ, SIMON – Russian physician; born at Riga, Livonia, July 15, 1854. He graduated from the gymnasium of his birthplace; studied medicine at the universities of Dorpat and Berlin; held the position of physician of the Jewish community of...
BRAMSON, LEO – Russian jurist and writer; born at Kovno April 17, 1869; graduated from the Moscow University as a "candidatus juris." He is a member of the St. Petersburg Pedagogical Society, secretary of the Jewish Colonization Association...
BRATZLAV – A town in the government of Podolia, Russia, situated on the right bank of the southern Bug. It was founded in the fourteenth century. It was at different times subject to Poland, Lithuania, Russia, and the Tatars. In 1479, when...
BRAUDO, ALEXANDER – Russian author; born in 1864. From 1889 until 1892 he was reviewer of literature on Russian history for the "Jahresbericht der Geschichtswissenschaft" and the "Istoricheskoye Obozrenie," published by the University of St....
BREGMAN, ELIEZER B. MOSES – Russian financier and philanthropist; born in Indura (commonly called by Russian Jews "Amdur"), government of Grodno, in 1826; died in Teplitz, Bohemia, Sept. 3, 1896. He was a prominent business man of Grodno, where he settled...
BREST-LITOVSK – A fortified town in the government of Grodno, Russia, at the junction of the Mukhovetz river with the western Bug; capital of the district of the same name. The Jewish population of the city in 1897 was 30,252, in a total...
BRESTOVITZA – Town in the district and government of Grodno, Russia, about forty miles south of the capital. From a record of a lawsuit between Paul Moskovich, parson of Brestovitza (Berestovec), and the Jew Moisei Isaacovich Khoroshenki of...
BRICHANY – Town in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, with (in 1898) 7,303 Jewish inhabitants in a total population of 8,094. The Jewish artisans number 972, most of whom are furriers who export fur overcoats and caps to the extent of...
BRILL, JOSEPH – Russian teacher and Hebrew writer; born at Gorki, near Mohilev, on the Dnieper, 1839. He studied Talmud at the yeshibot of Shklov and Vitebsk, and later settled in Minsk, where he opened a school for Jewish boys, and in which...
BRODSKI – A family which has produced many rabbis and notable men in the last three hundred years. It is a branch of the Schor family. Meïr Schor of Brody, Galicia, married and settled in Zlatopol, government of Kiev, Russia, where he...
BRODSKY, ADOLPH – Russian violinist; born in Taganrog March 21, 1851. At the age of nine he played in a concert at Odessa, attracting much attention. He received his musical education from Professor Helmesberger in Vienna, where he played in his...
BROVARY – Small town in the government of Chernigov, Russia. In 1898 it had 1,344 Jewish inhabitants in a population of 5,166. Most of them were engaged in mercantile pursuits; while 258 followed various handicrafts. The prevailing trade...
BRUCK, ABRAHAM JACOB – Russian educator; author of works in Hebrew and in Russian; born in the district of Rossienny 1820; died in Yekaterinoslav 1893. He received his education at the yeshibah of Volozhin, but studied Hebrew grammar and the Russian,...
BRUSILOV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia, with a Jewish population (1898) of 2,800, in a total of 6,500. Of the 541 Jewish artisans, 112 are tailors and 206 tanners. About eighty families receive alms at Passover. There is a...
BRUTZKUS, JUDAH LOEB BEN DAVID – Russian writer; born 1870 at Polangen, in the government of Courland; studied at the gymnasium and University of Moscow, from which city his family was expelled in 1892. He received his diploma as physician in 1894. Brutzkus...
BRYANSK – Town in the government of Grodno, Russia, with a Jewish population (1898) of 2,365, in a total population of 6,342. Of the Jews 525 are artisans and 85 gardeners and farmers.H. R. S. J.
BUDEK – Polish Catholic priest; canon of Wislica at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and one of the most vigorous Jew-baiters of his time. It was he who instigated the attack on the Jews of Cracow on the third day of Easter...
BUDNY, SIMON – Calvinist priest of Lithuania in the sixteenth century; founder of the Polish sect of the Budnians, who were surnamed "Half-Jews" ("Semi-Judaizantes"). He studied at the Academy of Cracow, where he became acquainted with some of...
BUDUSHCHNOST – Russo-Jewish weekly, established (1900) and edited by S. O. Gruzenberg. Like the "Voskhod," it gives valuableinformation concerning the history of the Jews and their social life and institutions; but while the former periodical...
BULAN – King of the Chazars, who in 620 embraced Judaism. Joseph, "Chaghan" (king) of the Chazars, in answer to a letter from Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut (960), informs him that 340 years earlier one of his ancestors, Bulan, became ruler of the...
BUTRYMOWICZ, MATHEUS – Polish statesman and landlord of the eighteenth century; a descendant of one of the oldest families of Lithuania and Samogitia, and one of the most enlightened members of the Diet assembled in Warsaw from 1788 to 1792.He took a...
BYELAYA TZERKOV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. Its Jewish settlement must have been formed after 1550, when the waywode of Kiev, having built there a castle, attracted many inhabitants to the town by granting them numerous...
BYELOSTOK – Early Tradition. Town in the government of Grodno, Russia; by rail 52 miles southwest of Grodno; one of the youngest in Lithuania. Little is known of the history of its Jewish community. There is a tradition (see "Ha-Ḳol," i.,...
BYELSK – Town in the government of Grodno, Russia. It is impossible to name the exact date when Jews first settled here. In the sixteenth century, during the reign of Sigismund Augustus, the Byelsk Jews were accused of ritual murder, but...
BYKHOV – District town in the government of Mohilev, Russia. At the census of 1898 the total population was 6,536, including 3,172 Jews, of whom 587 were artisans. Most of the Jews are extremely poor, and at times they lack the simple...