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Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D.

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Berlin, Germany; Jerusalem, Palestine.

Contributions:
SYRIA – Country in Asiatic Turkey. The terms "Syria" and "Syrians" do not occur in Hebrew; they are found first in the Greek period. FollowingNöldeke, these terms are usually explained as abbreviations of "Assyria" and "Assyrians." The...
TABOR – 1. Mountain of Palestine, the modern Jabal al-Ṭur, on the northern edge of the plain of Jezreel. It is a dome-shaped hill with softly rounded outlines, and rises about 400 m. above the surrounding plain and 562 m. above...
TEKOA – City of southern Judea, frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. The "wise woman" who brought about the recall of Absalom was a resident of the city (II Sam. xiv. 2 et seq.), and it was also the home of the prophet Amos (i....
TEMAN – Originally, the name of a tribe and then of a district of the Edomites. In Biblical genealogy it is the name of the eldest son of Eliphaz, the first-born of Esau, and one of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, 42; I Chron....
TENT – The usual home of nomads, who are accordingly described as dwelling in tents (Gen. iv. 20). As distinguished from the hut of boughs ("sukkah") it is a portable habitation of skin or cloth stretched over poles. The tent of the...
TIMBREL – Musical instrument. In the Hebrew music of Old Testament times, as indeed in Oriental music to-day, rhythm was of much greater importance, in comparison with the melody, than it is in modern Occidental music. Accordingly...
TIMNATH-SERAH – Town in Mount Ephraim, situated on the northern slope of the hill of Gaash (Josh. xxiv. 30). It was given to Joshua as an inheritance, was fortified by him (ib. xix. 50), and served as his place of burial (ib. xxiv. 30)....
TIRZAH – 1. Ancient Canaanitish capital (Josh. xii. 24), which, from the context, seems to have been situated in the northern part of the country. Possibly, therefore, it should be distinguished from the Israelitish capital of the same...
TITUS, ARCH OF – A triumphal arch erected at Rome in honor of the emperor Titus and in celebration of his victory over the Jews. It rises on the prominent part of the Via Sacra, about 20 yards above the Tiber. One of its faces fronts the...
TOWER – A building of strength or magnificence (Isa. ii. 15; Cant. iv. 4, vii. 4), and, with a more limited connotation, a watch-tower in a garden or vineyard or in a fortification. It was customary to erect watch-towers in the...
WALLS – The walls erected by the Canaanites for the protection of their farmyards consisted of great unhewn blocks of stone, and remnants of them still exist, especially in the east-Jordan district. Walls of fortifications and towns...
WASHING – As compared with the Greeks and Romans, the Hebrews paid little attention to the care of the body; and the bath was a rarity in a land where water was relatively scarce. It was important, therefore, that personal cleanliness...
WEAVING – As early as the nomadic period the Israelites understood the art of spinning the hair of camels and goats, and the wool of sheep, and of weaving therefrom rough stuffs for tents and clothing. Their method of weaving was probably...
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES – Derived from Babylonia. — Biblical Data: While the references in the Old Testament are sufficient for a general knowledge of the ancient Hebrew system of weights and measures, and of the mutual relations of the several units,...
WELL – The Hebrew language distinguishes between two kinds of wells: (1) "be'er," an artificially constructed hollow in which the water of a spring or underground water collects, and "bor," a cistern in which rain-water is stored. Of...
WHEAT – The chief breadstuff of Palestine in both ancient and modern times. It has been observed that the cultivation of wheat indicates a higher stage of civilization than the cultivation of barley alone. Barley bread is, therefore,...
WHEEL – In the Bible wheels are mentioned in connection with ordinary wagons, as well as with Chariots. Mention is made also of the thrashing-wheel (Prov. xx. 26; Isa. xxviii. 27), and of the potters' wheel or disk (Jer. xviii. 3; see...
WINDOWS – The climate of Palestine and the customs of the ancient and the modern Orient alike rendered the house less important than it is in the Occident, since it was more a sleeping apartment than a place for work, or even for...
WINDS – Ancient Hebrew literature recognizes only four winds-north, south, east, and west, having no names for those from intermediate points, so that such a designation as "north" has a wide range of application. The dwelling-places of...
ZIN – Frontier post of Judah on the south, mentioned in the description (Num. xxxiv. 4; Josh. xv. 3) of the frontier between the "ascent of Akrabbim" and Kadesh-barnea. The desert of Zin derived its name from this place. Kadesh-barnea...