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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
CERFBERR, MAXIMILIEN CHARLES ALPHONSE, OF MEDELSHEIM – French journalist; born at Epinal July 20, 1817; died at Paris Dec. 16, 1883. After traveling extensively in Algeria and the East, Cerfberr was attached in 1839 to the penitentiary administration in the Ministry of the Interior....
CERFBERR, SAMSON, OF MEDELSHEIM – French soldier and author; born at Strasburg about 1780; committed suicide at Paris, 1826. He led an erratic and adventurous life, wanderingover the world, changing his name and even his religion several times. At one time he is...
CHAMPAGNE – A former province of France, now known as the departments of Marne, Haute-Marne, Aube, and Ardennes, with part of Seine-et-Marne, Yonne, Aisne, and Meuse. Jews settled in Champagne as early as the Gallo-Roman epoch. They...
CHARLEMAGNE – King of the Franks and emperor of the West; born April, 742; died Jan. 28, 814. His attitude toward the Jews was rather that of a clever politician than of a liberal-minded man. He realized the advantages to be derived by the...
CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH – Russian traveler; born at Minsk April 20, 1835; died at Odessa April 28, 1880. His parents destined him for the wine-growing industry; but after having been graduated as a viticulturalist, he, owing to an indomitable passion for...
CHRISTIAN, GUSTAV CHRISTOPHER – German author and Christian missionary; born of Jewish parents; baptized in 1719; died at Nuremberg about 1735. He was the author of two Judæo-German works: "Yesod Emunat Yeshu'a" (The Basis of the Faith of Jesus), Berlin, 1712;...
CHRISTIANI, FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT – Jewish convert to Christianity; born in the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Prossnitz at the beginning of the eighteenth. He was baptized in 1674 at Strasburg, having formerly borne the name of Baruch as ḥazzan at...
CHRISTIANI, MORITZ WILHELM – Author and Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Altorf at the end of the seventeenth century; died at Prague about 1740; probably a member of the Keyser family of Schleusingen (Bavaria). He claimed to have been a rabbi at...
CHRISTIANI, PABLO – Jewish convert of Montpellier, France; contemporary of NaḤmanides. After having been baptized, Christiani joined the Order of the Dominicans and attempted to convert his former coreligionists. Failing to make proselytes among...
CHRISTINA AUGUSTA – Queen of Sweden; born at Stockholm Dec. 7, 1626; died at Rome April 19, 1689. She was a daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Mary Eleanora of Brandenburg, and reigned from 1632 to 1654. Her attitude toward the Jews was most...
CHUFUT-KALE – Suburb of Bakhchiserai, a town in the government of Taurida, Russia. It is called by the Tatars "Kirk-er" (Place of Forty), and by the Karaites. to which sect the greater part of its inhabitants belong, "Sela' ha-Yehudim" (The...
CHWOLSON, DANIEL ABRAMOVICH – Russian Orientalist; born at Wilna Dec. 15, 1819. As he showed marked ability in the study of Hebrew and Talmud, his parents, who were very religious, destined him for the rabbinate, and placed him at the yeshibah of Rabbi...
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CLEMENT XIV. (LORENZO GANGANELLI) – Two hundred and fifty-sixth pope; born at San Arcangelo, near Rimini, Oct. 31, 1705; elected May 19, 1769; died Sept. 22, 1774. His election was hailed with particular joy by the Jews, who trusted that the man who, as councilor...
CLISSON – Town in the department of Loire-Inférieure, France, formerly belonging to the province of Brittany. Clisson was a center of Jewish learning, several renowned scholars having resided there; and its name, variously written , ,...
COEN, BENJAMIN VITALE – Italian rabbi; born at Alessandria della Paglia in the second half of the seventeenth century; died at Reggio nell' Emilia in 1739. Descended from a wealthy and prominent family, Coen was elected rabbi of Casale while still a...
COHEN, JUDAH BEN ISAAC BEN MOSES – Provençal philosopher of the middle of the fourteenth century. He was a disciple of Samuel of Marseilles, and a relative of Shelemiah of Lunel, at whose request he composed a commentary on Averroes' middle commentary on the...
COHEN, MOSES BEN ELIEZER – Moralist; lived in Germany, probably at Coblenz, in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of an ethical work entitled "Sefer Ḥasidim" (Book of the Pious), written in 1473 and published by Schriftsetzer,...
COHEN, SHALOM BEN JACOB – Polish Hebraist; born at Meseritz (Mezhiryechye), Poland, Dec. 23, 1772; died at Hamburg Feb. 20, 1845. Prompted by a love for learning which he could not satisfy in Poland, he went to Berlin when only seventeen. There he became...
COHEN, SOLOMON BEN ELIEZER LIPMANN OF LISSA – German scholar; lived at Posen at the end of the eighteenth century and at the beginning of the nineteenth. He was a shoḥeṭ at Posen, and made a careful study of Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Bible, on which he wrote a...
COLMAR – Chief town of Upper Alsace, Germany, on the Lauch and the Fecht. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Colmar had a large community of Jews, who enjoyed the favor of the municipal authorities. They occupied a special...
COLOGNE – Chief city of Rhenish Prussia. There are indications that a Jewish community existed here long before Christianity had become dominant. The first official document, however, concerning the Jews of Cologne dates from the time of...
COLORNI (COLORNO), ABRAHAM – Italian engineer; born at Mantua about 1530. His great skill in his profession caused him to be much sought after, and in 1578 he held the position of engineer at the court of Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, who, in 1588 sent...
COMMANDMENTS, THE 613 – That the law of Moses contains 613 commandments is stated by R. Simlai, a Palestinian haggadist, who says (Mak. 23b): "Six hundred and thirteen commandments were revealed to Moses; 365 being prohibitions equal in number to the...
COMPIÉGNE DE WEIL, LUDWIG – Convert to Christianity; lived at Paris, later at Metz, in the second half of the seventeenth century. He was a descendant of the rabbi Jacob Weil of Nuremberg. Having embraced Christianity while still a youth, he studied...