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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
ARLES – City of France, in the department of Bouches du Rhône; ancient capital of Provence. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Arles is lost in antiquity. According to a legend, the emperor Vespasian placed Jews on three vessels,...
ARNHEIM, HEYMANN – German rabbi; born at Wongrowitz, Prussia, Feb. 6, 1796; died there Sept. 22, 1865. While still a child he was left fatherless, and from the age of twelve was compelled to earn his own living. Notwithstanding these unfavorable...
ARONIUS, JULIUS – German historian; born Feb. 5, 1861, at Rastenburg, Germany; died June 29, 1893. After completing the gymnasium course, he entered the University of Berlin, where he studied history, philology, and later went to the University...
AS'AD AL-DIN, YA'ḲUB IBN ISḤAḲ AL-MAḤALLI – Egyptian physician; lived in Cairo toward the end of the twelfth century and at the beginning of the thirteenth. He was born in al-MaḦallah, a city between Cairo and Damietta. Ibn Abi Usaibia, in his history of the Arabic...
ASCARELLI, DEBORAH – Italian poetess, and wife of Giuseppi Ascarelli; lived at Venice at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century.As early as 1560 Deborah was known in Rome as a poetess of talent. She translated into...
ASCARELLI, MOSES VITA (JEHIEL) – Physician at Rome; died Dec. 11, 1889. He received his early education at the Talmud Torah in that city, and later studied medicine at the University of Rome. During the cholera epidemic in 1867 he distinguished himself by his...
ASCHENBURG, SIMON B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Talmudic scholar; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main, later at Jerusalem, at which latter place he died about 1598. He was the author of a useful supercommentary upon Rashi's Pentateuch commentary entitled "Debeḳ Ṭob" (A Good Bond)....
ASCOLI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM ROFE – Physician and payyeṭan; lived at Camerino, Italy, perhaps at Ascoli, in the second half of the fifteenth century. Two Reshuts for Nishmat of his are printed in the MaḦzor Romania—(1) For the Day of Atonement; , etc. ("They will...
ASH'ARIYA – Mohammedan theological sect, founded at the beginning of the tenth century by Abu el-Hasan al-Ash'ari ("the Hairy"). Its aim was to combat doctrines taught by the Rationalists (Motazilites), and at the same time to moderate the...
ASHER, ANSHEL BEN MOSES BAER – Talmudist; lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Ben Emunim" (Son of Faith), Fürth, 1785: and "Ḥiddat Shimshon" (Samson's Riddle), Fürth, 1785. The former is a homiletic commentary on the...
ASHER, ENSEL B. JUDAH LOEB – Chief of the bet din at Slonim, Lithuania, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Otot le-Mo'adim" (Signs for the Feasts) and "Baruk mi-Banim Asher" (Blessed Be Asher Above Sons; Deut. xxxiii. 24). The...
ASHER, LEMEL HA-LEVI – Polish Talmudic scholar; lived at the end of the eighteenth century. Together with his two sons, YeḦiel Michel ha-Levi of Glogau and Moses ha-Levi of Glogau, he wrote homilies on the Pentateuch, published in 1820 under the title...
ASHKENAZI, AZRIEL B. JOSEPH – Printer at Naples, 1491-92. From his printing-house the first editions of Avicenna's "Canon" and BaḦya's "Ḥobot ha-Leba bot" were issued.Bibliography: De Rossi, Annales Hebrœo-Typographici, etc., p. 177; Mortara, Indice...
ASHKENAZI, AZRIEL B. MOSES LEVI – Preacher at Tarnogrod, government of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "NaḦalat' Azriel" (The Inheritance of Azriel), Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1691, a work comprising homilies and comments upon parts...
ASHKENAZI, BAERUSH (DOB) – Rabbi at Slonim, Lithuania, later at Lublin, Poland; born about 1801; died in Lublin March 6, 1852. He was the author of: (1) "Noda' ba-She'arim." (Known in the Gates), containing responsa on the "Eben he'Ezer"; novellæ on the...
ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER B. SOLOMON – Rabbinical scholar; born in Poland about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and resided afterward in Tunis. He published at Metz in 1845, under the title "Dibre Ḥakamim" (The Words of the Wise), a selection of eleven...
ASHKENAZI, ISAAC BEN JACOB – Rabbi at Byeltzy, Bessarabia; lived in the middle of the eighteenth century. He is the reputed author of a cabalistic work, "Berit 'Olam" (Everlasting Covenant), containing cabalistic explanations of the letters, with some...
ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI B. JOSEPH – Preacher at Safed in the sixteenth century; died at Venice in 1602. He wrote a work, entitled "Imre Shefer" (Words of Beauty), containing homiletic and exegetical dissertations on the Bible. The edition of this work published at...
ASTI – Town in the province of Alessandria, Italy, on the left bank of the Tanaro; population 32,000. Although now of no great importance, in the Middle Ages Asti was a center of commerce and the capital of one of the most powerful...
ASTRUC DÉS GABBAI – Provençal scholar; lived at Béziers toward the end of the thirteenth century and the beginning of the fourteenth. Nothing is known of his life and his scientific activity. His name was transmitted by his relative, or perhaps by...
ASTRUC HA-LEVI OF DAROCA – Talmudic scholar; lived in Spain at the end of the fourteenth and at the beginning of the fifteenth century. He was a delegate to the famous disputation at Tortosa, in 1413, under the presidency of Pope Benedict XIII., at which...
ATOMISM – The theory concerning atoms. Two opinions of the nature of matter were professed in the Greek philosophical schools. The Eleatic school asserted that matter is infinitely divisible. Democritus, Leucippus, and Epicurus...
ATTIA, ISAAC B. ISAIAH – Talmudic scholar; lived in Aleppo in the nineteenth century. He was the author of the following works, published in Leghorn, 1821-31: (1) "Eshet Ḥayil" (A Virtuous Woman), explaining Prov. xxxi.; (2) "Wayiḳra Yiẓḥaḳ" (And Isaac...
ATTRIBUTES – The fundamental and permanent properties of substance, so-called by logicians in contradistinction to accidents, which are modifications representing circumstantial properties only. Aristotle makes the distinction between...
AUERBACH, ABRAHAM BEN ABIEZRI SELIG – German rabbi; born at Buxweiler, Alsace, in the middle of the eighteenth century; died at Bonn Nov. 3, 1846. Being a descendant of an old rabbinical family, he was destined from his childhood for the rabbinate, and was educated...