JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
AUERBACH, SOLOMON HEYMANN – Hebrew scholar; born at Posen at the end of the eighteenth century; died there in 1836. He translated Habakkuk into German with explanatory notes (Breslau, 1821). He also collaborated in the translation of the Bible undertaken...
AURUM CORONARIUM – A tax paid to the emperor by all the Roman provinces. Originally it was a voluntary contribution toward the golden crown to be offered to those to whom a "triumph" was given, and to the emperors (compare Cicero, "In Pisonem,"...
AVERROISM – Averroes, like his contemporary Maimonides, was a strict Peripatetic; yet they differed greatly in matters of faith. While Maimonides, with all his admiration for Aristotle, dared to contradict his theories, or at least sought...
AVIANUS, HIERONYMUS – Christian Oriental scholar; lived at Leipsic at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He devoted himself to Hebrew versification, and published a work in two volumes, entitled, "Clavis Poeseos...
AZRIEL (EZRA) BEN MENAHEM (BEN SOLOMON) – Founder of the speculative Cabala, and called "The Saint"; born at Gerona in 1160; died in 1238. As to the identity of Azriel and Ezra, taken for two brothers by Grätz ("Gesch." vii. 447 et seq.) and Bloch (Winter and Wünsche,...
AZRIEL BEN MOSES MESHEL, OF WILNA – Grammarian; lived at the end of the seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. About 1700 he left his native town, Wilna, and settled with his family at Frankfort-on-the-Main. There he published, in 1704, in...
AZUBIB, JOSEPH B. NEHORAI – Rabbi at Algiers; died at Blida, Algeria, January, 1794. At an early age he assisted his father in his duties as rabbi of Algiers; and at the death of the latter succeeded him. He published a work under the title "Yamim Aḥadim"...
AZUBIB, NEHORAI B. SAADIA – Rabbi at Algiers; died October, 1785. He composed several prayers for the anniversary instituted by the community in commemoration of the repulse of O'Reilly's expedition against Algiers in 1775. Some Arabic poems of his figure...
BACH, EMILIE – Artist and journalist; born at Neuschloss, Bohemia, July 2, 1840; died at Vienna April 29, 1890. She was directress of the royal school for artistic embroidery, and published on this subject two works: "Muster Stilvoller...
BACHER, EDUARD – Austrian jurisconsult and journalist; born at Pastelberg March 17, 1846. Graduating from the University of Vienna, he engaged in practise as an advocate, in which career he displayed such marked ability that some years later the...
BACHI, RAPHAEL – Italian miniature-painter; lived at Paris in the middle of the eighteenth century. His name appears in the list of the Jews that resided in Paris during the reign of Louis XV., which was recently published by Paul d'Estrées....
BAER, BEER, BEHR – Jewish prænomen and family name, derived from the German "Bär" (bear). The Jews of Germany, like those of other countries, borrowed their names from their non-Jewish fellow-citizens; chiefly when equivalents of these names could...
BAER, ISSACHAR B. ELHANAN – Rabbi at Eibenschütz; born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in the second half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of a collection of cabalistic homilies and commentaries, entitled "Arba' Ḥarashim" (Four Skilful Artificers),...
BAER, ISSACHAR BEN PETHAHIAH BEN MOSES – Cabalist; lived at Kremnitz, Hungary, at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He seems to have traveled in the East and sojourned some time at Safed; and he frequently refers in his writings to the cabalistic school...
BAERMANN OF LIMBURG – German writer; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the end of the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the eighteenth. He published (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1712) a Judæo-German play, with the Hebrew title "Mekirat Yosef"...
BAGI – A prominent Karaite family; lived in Constantinople in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries. The family name, which is variously written Badschi (Fürst, "Geschichte des Karäerthums," iii. 14), Pegi, Poki...
BAHIR – Authorship Erroneously Ascribed. Pseudonymous work attributed to the tanna Neḥunya ben ha-Ḳanah, a contemporary of Johanan ben Zaḳḳai (first century) because it begins with the words, "R. Neḥunya ben ha-Ḳanah said" ( ). No...
BAHRAM TSHUBIN – Persian general; king of Persia from June 27, 590, to June 26, 591. Hormiz IV. (578-590), through his cruelty, brought the empire to the brink of destruction. His subjects were dissatisfied; and the political enemies of Persia...
BAḤTAWI, ABU YA'AḲUB JOSEPH, THE BABYLONIAN – Karaite scholar; flourished in the ninth century. He was called "the teacher of the diaspora," and esteemed for his brilliant intellect. None of his works has survived; but many of them are known by quotations made by Karaite...
BAHYA BEN JOSEPH IBN PAḲUDA – System of Ethics. Dayyan and philosopher; flourished at Saragossa, Spain, in the first half of the eleventh century. He was the author of the first Jewish system of ethics, written in Arabic in 1040 under the title "Al Hidayah...
BAKRI, DAVID BEN JOSEPH COEN – Chief of the Algerian Jews; financier; born about 1770; decapitated Feb. 4, 1811. His great financial abilities placed him early at the head of the important firm "Bakri Brothers," founded by his father. In 1797 David married...
BAKRI, JACOB COHEN – French consul at Algiers before its conquest by France; born in Algiers in 1763; died at Paris Nov. 23, 1836. Immensely rich, and highly esteemed for his abilities and character, he was appointed consul under the Restoration. In...
BAKRI, JOSEPH COEN – Chief of the Algerian Jews; financier; born at Algiers in the middleof the eighteenth century; died at Leghorn in 1817. He was the founder of the renowned firm "Bakri Brothers," which played so great a part in the politics of...
BALI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB – Karaite physician and ḥazan; lived at Foli ( ?) in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was the pupil of Shabbethai ben Melkiel Cohen, and the author of the following works, for the most part still in manuscript (St....
BALI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM – Karaite physician and ḥakam at Cairo at the end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of the sixteenth. He was the author of 224 poems, finished in 1489, on the weekly lessons, entitled "Sefer Zeraḥ." Another selection...