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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
BERNARDINUS OF FELTRE – His Preaching. Franciscan friar; born at Feltre, Italy, in 1439; died Sept. 28, 1494. He was one of the bitterest enemies the Jews ever had, and openly advocated their utter extermination. He traveled throughout Italy preaching...
BERR ISAAC BERR OF TURIQUE – French manufacturer; born at Nancy in 1744; died at Turique, near Nancy, Nov. 5, 1828. He came of a rich and estimable family; received an excellent education, especially in Hebrew and rabbinical literature—in the latter from...
BERR, MICHEL – An Author at Twenty. The first Jew to practise in France as a barrister; born at Nancy 1780; diedthere July 4, 1843. His father, Isaac Berr de Turique, who made himself known by his great ability as a writer and as a champion of...
BERRUYER, JOSEPH ISAAC – French Jesuit; born at Rouen Nov. 7, 1681; died at Paris Feb. 1758. He was the author of a work entitled "Histoire du Peuple de Dieu," Paris, 1728, a history of the Jews from the earliest times to the birth of Jesus, according...
BERTRAM, CORNEILLE BONAVENTURE – Protestant clergyman and Hebraist; born at Thouars, France, in 1531; died at Lausanne, Switzerland, 1594. He studied at Poitiers, Paris, Toulouse, and Cahors. Learning, in the last-mentioned city, that the authorities had...
BET BELTIN – A steep hill above the Euphrates, on which is built the modern town of Bir; lat. 37° 3' N., long. 38° E. Travelers and caravans from Aleppo to Diarbekir, Bagdad, and Portia cross the Euphrates at this point. According to the...
BET-TALMUD – Hebrew monthly review, devoted to Talmudical and rabbinical studies and literature; founded in 1881 by Isaac Hirsch Weiss and Meïr Friedmann, at Vienna, and published by the former until its discontinuance in 1886.Besides the...
BETHEL – An Italian-Jewish family, several members of which are known as liturgical poets and copyists. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome after the destruction of...
BEUGNOT, AUGUSTE ARTHUR, COUNT – French statesman and scholar; born at Bar-sur-Aube March, 1797; died at Paris March 15, 1865. Originally he adopted the profession of advocate, but soon abandoned it in order to devote himself entirely to the study of history,...
BEZALEL BEN SOLOMON OF KOBRYN – Preacher at Slutzk, government of Minsk, Russia; later at Boskowitz, Moravia; died before 1659. He was the author of the following works: (1) "'Amudeah Shib'ah" (Her Columns Are Seven), containing homilies on the Bible; divided...
BÉZIERS – Earliest Mention. Town of France in the department of Hérault. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Béziers is lost in antiquity. Two letters of Sidonius Apolonarius and the canons of the council held at Agde in 506...
BIALLOBLOTZKY, CHRISTIAN HERMANN FRIEDRICH – Jewish convert to Christianity; born April 9, 1799, at Pattensen, near Hanover; died March 28, 1868, at Ahlden-on the-Aller. Bialloblotzky studied Christian theology and philosophy, and received the degree of D.D. at the...
BIBLE MANUSCRIPTS – By this term are designated handwritten copies and codices of the Hebrew Bible as a whole, or of several books arranged in groups according to a certain order (see Bible Canon), or of single books. Sometimes, though not often,...
BICKELL, GUSTAV WILHELM HUGO – Christian Hebraist and professor in the University of Vienna; born July 7, 1838, at Cassel. After graduating at Marburg, where he studied Semitic languages, he renounced Protestantism and entered the Roman Catholic Church,...
BIKAYIM, MEÏR BEN ḤALIFAH – Cabalist; lived in Turkey in the eighteenth century. He is the author of the following works: (1) "Golel Or" (Who Evolved Light), on metempsychosis, according to the teachings of Isaac Luria, Ḥayyim Vital, and Azariah of Fano...
BINA BEN DAVID – Cabalist, and rabbi at Lockacze, Poland, in the middle of the seventeenth century. Bina was the author of "Zer Zahab" (Crown of Gold), Cracow, 1647, an alphabetical index to, and extracts and explanations from, the Zohar and...
BITHYNIA – A province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus, and the Euxine. A Jewish colony existed there as early as the first century of the common era. In his address to Caius, the Judean...
BLEIBTREU, PHILIP JOHANN – Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the seventeenth century; died there in 1702. He published a German work entitled "Meïr Naor" (The Enlightened Meïr, from his Jewish name, Meïr),...
BLIN D'ELBŒUF – French manufacturer who introduced into France woolen cloth for ladies' use. It was soon considered the best in Europe, and obtained the prize at the Vienna Exhibition of 1870. Blin in presenting a sample of his cloth to...
BLITZ, JEKUTHIEL BEN ISAAC – Corrector of the press in the Hebrew printing-office of Uri Phoebus at Amsterdam; lived there in the second half of the seventeenth century. He translated the Bible into Judæo-German (Amsterdam, 1679). The translation, which was...
BLOCH, MATTITHIAH ASHKENAZI – Cabalist; lived at Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. A blind adherent and indefatigable apostle of Shabbethai Ẓebi, he was appointed by him one of his prophets charged with the announcement of the Redemption.Bibliography:...
BLOIS – Capital of the department of Loir-et-Cher, France. Although of small importance itself, Blois occupies a prominent place in Jewish history through the somber drama of which it was, in 1171, the theater.On the testimony of a...
BLUM, ISAAC AUGUST – French mathematician; born at Paris in 1831; died there Jan. 5, 1877. He entered in 1831 the Ecole Polytechnique and was graduated lieutenant of marine, but resigned in 1833 and devoted himself to teaching. Involved in the...
BOBRUISK – City in a district of the same name, in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on the right bank of the River Berezina. It is mentioned the first time in official documents concerning Jews, issued in 1511. The inhabitants of...
BOGUSLAV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. It is mentioned in official documents dated 1195. Nothing is known of the date of the Jewish settlement there. Russian and Polish historians record that Boguslav was one of the cities...