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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
CARDOSO, ELIJAH ABOAB – Philanthropist and founder of the Hamburg synagogue; lived in that city in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was descended from the Spanish family of that name, and was one of the first Jewish settlers in Hamburg. In...
CARDOSO, MIGUEL – Shabbethaian prophet and physician; born in Spain about 1630; died at Cairo 1706. He was a descendant of the Maranos in the Portuguese city of Celorico. He studied medicine together with his brother Fernando Isaac, and while the...
CARLOS, DAVID COHEN – Spanish writer; lived at Hamburg in the first half of the seventeenth century. He translated into Spanish the Song of Songs under the title "Cantares de Selomo, Traduzido de Lengua Caldayca en Espagnol," Hamburg, 1631. The...
CARMOLY, ELIAKIM – Leaves Ministry for Literature. French scholar; born at Sulz (then in the French department of the Upper Rhine) August 5, 1802; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 15, 1875. His real name was Goschel David Behr (or Baer); the...
CARMOLY, ISSACHAR BÄR BEN JUDAH – Alsatian rabbi; born at Ribeauville, Alsace, Sept. 15, 1735; died at Sulz May, 1781. At the age of ten he was advanced in his training for the rabbinate sufficiently to follow the elaborate lectures of Jonathan Eybeschütz....
CARO, ARYEH LÖB BEN ḤAYYIM – Preacher at Posen in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work, "El ha-Millu'im" (Ram of Consecration), a homiletic commentary on the Pentateuch and the Song of Songs, published, with additions...
CARRETUS, LUDOVICUS – Convert to Christianity; lived at Florence in the middle of the sixteenth century. He was a native of France and was originally called "Todros Cohen." As the physician of a Spanish duke, he was with the imperial troops who...
CARTHAGENA, DON ALFONSO DE – Convert to Christianity; son of Paul of Burgos; diedat Burgos in 1456. He was baptized when quite young by his father, and became archdeacon of Compostella. Being equally distinguished as states-man and as priest, he succeeded...
CARVALLO, JULES – French engineer; born at Talence, Gironde, France, in 1820. After having graduated with the highest honors at the Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, he was attached as engineer to the Southern Railroad; and...
CASES – Jewish Italian family that included among its members rabbis, physicians, and scholars. The more numerous branch of the family lived in Mantua; some lived in Ferrara; some emigrated to Turkey and Palestine (see Zunz, in...
CASLARI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID – Physician; lived at Besalu, Catalonia, in the first half of the fourteenth century. Caslari was considered one of the most skilful physicians of his time. He was the teacher of Moses Narboni of Perpignan, and one of the ten...
CASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI BEN JOSEPH BEN JACOB – Provençal exegete, grammarian, and philosopher; born in 1297 at Largentière, whence his surname "Caspi" (= made of silver); died at Tarascon in 1340. His Provençal name was Don Bonafous de Largentera. He traveled much, visiting...
CASPI, NATHANAEL BEN NEHEMIAH – Provençal scholar; lived at the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was a disciple of Frat Maimon, under whose direction he composed in 1424 his first work, a commentary on the "Cuzari." This...
CASTANHO, ABRAHAM – Spanish poet; lived at Amsterdam in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of an elegy on the martyr Abraham Nuñez of Bernal, who was burned at Cordova May 3, 1655. It was inserted in "Elogios que Zelosos...
CASTEL D'AJANO, SAMUEL DI – Italian physician and philosopher; lived at Mantua in the sixteenth century. A philosophical work of his on the articles of belief, entitled "Meor ha-Golah" (The Light of the Exile), is still extant in manuscript (Michael, "Or...
CASTELLAZZO – Italian-Jewish family which settled at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Cairo, where several members occupied the rabbinate with distinction. The most important were the following:1. Jehiel Castellazzo (called Ashkenazi...
CASTELNUOVO, SAMUEL DI – Secretary of the Jewish community of Rome; lived at the end of the sixteenth century and at the beginning of the seventeenth. He edited and probably translated into Italian: (1) Judah ha-Levi's piyyuṭ, "Mi kamoka," Venice, 1609,...
CATALOGUES OF HEBREW BOOKS – These were of frequent use among the Jews in the Middle Ages. Judah ibn Tibbon (about 1200) speaks in loving terms of his collection of books and of its catalogue, both of which he recommends tohis son Samuel. Specimens of old...
CATEGORY – A term introduced by Aristotle into the philosophical vocabulary, signifying "attribute," "predicate." According to him every word containedin a proposition belongs to one of the following ten categories: substance, quantity,...
CATTANEO, CARLO – Italian Christian jurisconsult; born in Milan June 15, 1801; died at Castagnole, near Lugano, Feb. 5, 1869. Although Cattaneo was not favorably inclined toward the Jews, he vehemently protested against the oppressive laws to...
CERF, KARL FRIEDRICH – German theatrical manager; born at Unterreissheim-on-the-Main in 1782; died at Berlin Nov. 6, 1845. He embraced Christianity when very young, and had to support his father's family when only seventeen years old. After having...
CERFBEER, HERZ, OF MEDELSHEIM – French philanthropist; born at Bischheim, Alsace, in 1730; died at Strasburg in 1793. He was a contractor to the army, and employed his wealth and his influence with the French government in promoting the material and spiritual...
CERFBERR, ANATOLE – French journalist and author; born at Paris 1835; died at Neuilly 1896. Under various pseudonyms, among which were "Arthur Clary," "Antoine Cerlier," and "Fulgence Ridal," he contributed to numerous papers. He was an admirer of...
CERFBERR, AUGUSTE ÉDOUARD – French author; born at Epinal in 1811; died in 1858. Having completed his studies in law, Cerfberr entered the service of the government, in which he held many high positions. His last office was that of prefect and general...
CERFBERR, FRÉDÉRIC – French consul; born at Strasburg Oct. 27, 1786; died at sea Sept. 18, 1842, on a voyage from New York to France. Being fond of travel and foreign languages, he obtained (in 1809) the appointment as secretary of the imperial...