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Israel Lévi,

Rabbi; Professor at the Jewish Theological Seminary, Paris; Editor of "Revue des Etudes Juives"; Paris, France.

Contributions:
ALEXANDER THE GREAT – The celebrated conqueror of the East, 356-323 B.C. By introducing Hellenic culture into Syria and Egypt, he had probably more influence on the development of Judaism than any one individual not a Jew by race. Yet, curiously...
ANDRADE, ABRAHAM – French rabbi; born in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; died at Bordeaux, 1836. During the Reign of Terror (1793-94) his energy and eloquence prevented the erection of a guillotine in the market-place of St. Esprit...
ANJOU – Ancient province of France, bounded by Poitou, Brittany, Maine, and Touraine. It now includes the whole of the department Maine-et-Loire as well as parts of Mayenne, of Sarthe, and of Indre-et-Loire. This province, at one time a...
ARRAS – Chief city of the department of Pasde-Calais, capital of the ancient Artois, France. According to Gross, the name of this city appears in a very curious Hebrew document (De Rossi, MS. No. 563, 23), which relates that Robert the...
BAGÉ-LA VILLE – Village in the canton Bagéle-Chalet, department of Ain, France. It was inhabited by Jews in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; and in 1331 they were divided into elder and younger.Bibliography: Inventaire Sommaire des...
BAIGNEUX-LES-JUIFS – Capital of a canton, arrondissement of Chatillon-sur-Seine, Côte d'Or, France. As the name indicates, there were Jewish inhabitants in this place during the Middle Ages. A secret inquiry was made between 1306 and 1308 into the...
BEAUCROISSANT – Community of the canton of Rives, arrondissement of St. Marcellin lsère, France, a locality inhabited by Jews in 1337.Bibliography: Revue des Etudes Juives, ix. 241.G. I. L.
BERTOLIO, ABBÉ – French cleric; member of the Commune of Paris in 1790. The National Assembly conferred citizenship upon the Jews of Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Avignon Jan. 28, 1790; but deferred granting it to those of Alsace and Lorraine. Hence,...
BRAY-SUR-SEINE – Small town situated between Provins and Montereau, in the department of Seine-et-Marne; belonged formerly to Champagne. In the twelfth century it had an important Jewish community, including such rabbis as Jacob the Tosafist,...
CRESCAS, MORDECAI EN, OF ORANGE – Prominent member of the community of Carcassonne, France; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. As leader (syndic) of the Jews of the whole district, he succeeded in obtaining special jurisdiction for the Jews of...
DIDEROT, DENIS – French philosopher and encyclopedist; born at Langres Oct. 5, 1713; died at Paris July 30, 1784. Although, like all the French encyclopedists, an apostle of tolerance, Diderot does not seem to have had much sympathy with the...
ELIEZER OF BEAUGENCY – French exegete of the twelfth century; born at Beaugency, capital of a canton in the department of Loiret; pupil of Samuel ben Meïr, the eminent grandson of Rashi. Eliezer was one of the most distinguished representatives of his...
FRANCE – Country forming the most westerly part of Central Europe.Church Laws Against Jews. —Roman-Gallic Epoch: The banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul in the year 6 (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 13, §§ 2-3; idem, "B. J." ii. 7, § 3;...
ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN NATHANAEL OF BEAUCAIRE – Liturgic poet of the early part of the thirteenth century. Zunz credits him with thirty-eight synagogal hymns, most of them to be found in the rituals of Carpentras, Avignon, and Tripoli. They are dated between 1205 and 1220....
JUDAH B. SHENEOR OF EVREUX – French liturgical poet of the thirteenth century. He maintained a correspondence with Jacob b. Solomon of Courson (c. 1260). According to Carmoly, he was the brother of Moses and Samuel of Evreux, and lived in Vendeuvre; but...
SIRACH, THE WISDOM OF JESUS THE SON OF – Names. Among the books of the Greek Bible is one entitled Σοφία Ἰησοῦ ϒἱοῦ Σιράχ (Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus) or simply Σοφία Σειρáχ (Codex Vaticanus). The Greek Church Fathers called it also "The All-Virtuous Wisdom"...
SOCIÉTÉ DES ÉTUDES JUIVES – Society for the study of Jewish history and literature, and especially of the history and literature of the Jews of France; its headquarters are in Paris. It was founded in 1880, chiefly through the efforts of Baron James...
TRENEL, ISAAC – French rabbi; born at Metz Dec. 28, 1822; died at Paris in 1890. He studied at Marmoutier under his uncle Jacob Haguenauer, a famous Talmudist, and later at Merzig, Prussia, under the Talmudist Moïse Lévy, known also as R. Mochè...