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Immanuel Löw, Ph.D.

Chief Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
BEET – This well-known biennial root-plant is not mentioned in the Bible; according to De Candolle, it was not cultivated before the sixth or fourth century B.C., although Wönig claims to recognize it in an Egyptian picture from the...
BOTANY – Early Classification. The science that treats of plants. Like grammar and other sciences based on logical thought, scientific botany originated with the Greeks, and from them found its way to the Jews. Agriculture, gardening,...
HORTICULTURE – The Garden. That department of the science of agriculture which relates to the cultivation of gardens. The garden is called "gan" or "gannah" in the later Biblical books, and in the Mishnah "ginnah." Originally the word "gan"...
LILY – Rendering in the Bible of the Hebrew word (I Kings vii. 19) or (II Chron. iv. 5; Cant. ii. 1; Hosea xiv. 5), which is probably a loanword from the Egyptian "s-sh-sh-sh-n" = "lotus"; the white lily, Lilium candidum Linn., growing...
MILLET – An important species of grain which grows chiefly in sandy regions. In Arabia, Italy, and elsewhere a bread, excellent when fresh, is made of it, and also of the species Panicum italicum Linn. The grain is mentioned but once in...
MYRTLE – An evergreen, aromatic shrub which flourishes in the spring and summer on hillsides and near watercourses. In the Bible it is mentioned definitely in the later books only ( , Isa. xli. 19, lv. 13; Zech. i. 8, 10, 11; Neh. viii....
NARD – A species of Valeriana spica Vahl = Nardostachys Jatamansi De Candolle, growing in eastern Asia. It was well known to the ancients as a perfume because of the pungent but pleasant odor of its root; and it formed, under the name...
OIL – In the Bible olive-oil alone is mentioned, although it may be inferred from the expression "shemen zayit" that other oils were known. Oliveoil, like grain and wine, was one of the chief products of Palestine; and at an early...
PLANTS – In the Bible: The following names of plants and plant materials are found in the Old Testament:[The plant-names in this table follow the order of the Hebrew alphabet, but are transliterated according to the system adopted by The...
ROSE – This flower is not mentioned in the Bible, and the earliest reference to it occurs in Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiv. 14. It is mentioned in the Mishnah and the later Apocrypha, while in the Targum and with many subsequent exegetes it...
SCHWAB, LÖW – Moravian rabbi; born at Krumau, Moravia, March 11, 1794; died April 3, 1857; pupil of R. Mordecai Benet in Nikolsburg, R. Moses Sofer in Presburg, R. Joshua Horwitz in Trebitsch, and R. Joachim Deutschmann in Gewitsch. He held...
THORNS AND THISTLES – The desert flora of Palestine is unusually rich in thorns and thistles, containing a whole series of acanthaceous shrubs and various thistles, including Acanthus, Carduus (thistle), Centaurea Calcitrapa (star-thistle), Cirsium...
VINEGAR – In the Biblical period vinegar was prepared either from wine or from cider, the former variety being termed "ḥomeẓ yayin," and the latter "ḥomeẓ shekar." It was used to moisten the flat loaves of the harvesters, and was also...
WILLOW – Any tree or shrub of the genus Salix. Willows and poplars are numerous in Palestine. In all regions the white willow (Salix alba) and the Euphrates poplar (Populus Euphratica) occur with great frequency, while the crack-willow...