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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
CHARITY AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS – The Lord's Share. —Ancient and Medieval Times. Charity is kindness shown to the needy; Hebrew, "ẓedaḳah"="righteousness" (Deut. xxiv. 13; Isa. xxxii. 17; Prov. xiv. 34; Ps. cvi. 3; Dan. iv. 24); "gemilut ḥesed" or "gemilut...
CHARLEMONT, ELIZABETH JANE CAULFIELD, Countess of – Convert to Judaism; born June 21, 1834; died at Roxborough Castle, Moy, County Tyrone, Ireland, May 31, 1882. She was the only daughter of William Meredyth, first Lord Athlumney, and married Dec., 1856, James Molyneux, third...
CHARTOGRAPHY – The art of making maps. In the development of this art, during the Middle Ages, an epoch is made by the Catalan "portulani"—seamen's charts showing the directions and distances of sailing between different ports, chiefly of the...
CHAVES – Jewish-Portuguese family that derived its name from its native place of Chaves in Portugal; members of it are found in Amsterdam and London.A. de Chaves: Painter at Amsterdam in 1700.Aaron de Chaves: Edited in Amsterdam, in...
CHESS – A game of skill, usually played by two persons, with sixteen pieces each, on a board divided into sixty-four squares alternately light and dark. Authoritative opinions agree that chess, under the Sanskrit name of "chaturanga" (=...
CHESTNUT-TREE – The rendering of given in the A. V. (Gen. xxx. 37; Ezek. xxxi. 8); the R.V., however, preferring "plane-tree." There are two considerations lending weight to the rejection of the translation given in the A. V.: (1) the plane...
CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLEY – English Christian Biblical critic, and Oriel professor of Biblical exegesis at the University of Oxford, England; born at London Sept. 18, 1841; educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, Worcester College, Oxford, and under...
CHOLERA ASIATICA – A specific and communicable disease, characterized by violent vomiting and purging. It prevails endemically in some parts of India, and from time to time is diffused epidemically throughout the world. The mortality is about 50...
CHOTZNER, JOSEPH – English rabbi and author; born at Cracow, Austria, May 11, 1844; educated at the Breslau rabbinical seminary and the University of Breslau. After his ordination Chotzner became the first rabbi of the congregation at Belfast,...
CHRIST – Septuagint translation of Hebrew "Mashiaḥ" ("Messiah"=The Anointed),applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the Messiah (see Jesus of Nazareth and Messiah).J.K.
CHRONOLOGY – The science that treats of the computation and adjustment of time or periods of time, and of the record and arrangement of events in the order of time. The chronology of Jewish literature may be divided into two periods: (1)...
CHURRIKER, ABRAHAM DAVID – Beni-Israel soldier and police officer; born 1822; died at Puna Nov. 2, 1867. He enlisted in the Third Regiment of the Bombay Native Light Infantry, in which he served in the Punjab army in the years 1848-49, being present at...
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CLAVERING, ROBERT – Bishop of Peterborough and Christian Hebraist; born in 1671; died July 21, 1747. He was regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford from 1715 until his death. In 1705 at Oxford he published a translation of Maimonides' "Yad," Hilkot...
CLEMENT XIV. (LORENZO GANGANELLI) – Two hundred and fifty-sixth pope; born at San Arcangelo, near Rimini, Oct. 31, 1705; elected May 19, 1769; died Sept. 22, 1774. His election was hailed with particular joy by the Jews, who trusted that the man who, as councilor...
CLIMATION – The adaptation of the individual to a new climate. It has been observed that when people emigrate to a strange country, even when the new climate differs but little from that of the mother country, there occurs a transformation...
CLOUD – Biblical Data: The Hebrew equivalents for "cloud" are: (1) "'Anan," (Gen. ix. 13, 14; Ex. xiii., passim), which occurs once in the feminineform "'ananah" (Job iii. 5), and once in the Aramaic form (Dan. vii. 13). (2) "'Ab" is...
COAT OF ARMS – Armorial bearings of families to which the right to bear arms has been granted by the recognized heraldic authorities. This right is in a heraldic sense distinctly feudal in character; and it seems to have originated, toward the...
COAT OF ARMS – Armorial bearings of families to which the right to bear arms has been granted by the recognized heraldic authorities. This right is in a heraldic sense distinctly feudal in character; and it seems to have originated, toward the...
COCCEIUS (KOCH), JOHANNES – German theologian and Hebraist; born at Bremen 1603; died at Leyden Nov. 5, 1669. He was appointed professor of Hebrew at Bremen in 1629, and at Franeker in 1636, where, after 1643, he also held the chair of theology. In 1650 he...
COCHIN – State of India, within the Madras Presidency. The Jews in Cochin numbered 1,142 in 1891, and are divided into two classes: the Whites, whose complexion is almost as fair as that of European Jews, and the Blacks, who, though...
COCHIN – State of India, within the Madras Presidency. The Jews in Cochin numbered 1,142 in 1891, and are divided into two classes: the Whites, whose complexion is almost as fair as that of European Jews, and the Blacks, who, though...
COFFEE – A decoction of the berry of the Coffea Arabica, supposed to be indigenous to Abyssinia, and introduced into Arabia in the fifteenth century. It soon came into common use throughout Islam, and was thence introduced into European...