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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
COHEN – The most usual surnames of European Jews. It indicates a family claiming. descent from Aaron, the high priest. "Cohen" is the usual transliteration and orthography in English-speaking countries; but "Cowen" and "Cowan" also...
COHEN, ABNER – The pioneer of Krugersdorp, Transvaal Colony; born about 1860; emigrated to South Africa in 1881; worked his way north, and fell in with the Boers, learning their language and trading with them. On his way to Johannesburg in...
COHEN, ARTHUR – English barrister and king's counsel; born in London Nov. 18, 1830. After three years' study at the gymnasium in Frankfort-on-the-Main, he entered as a student at University College, London. Thence he proceeded to Cambridge at a...
COHEN, BENJAMIN LOUIS – English politician and communal worker; member of Parliament for East Islington since 1892; born in London in 1844; son of Louis Cohen, founder of the firm of Louis Cohen & Sons, which he joined on reaching manhood. Cohen was...
COHEN, EDWARD – Australian statesman; born in London 1822; died March, 1877. He received his early education in Australia, and entered into business as a partner in his father's firm. Shortly after his arrival in Victoria in 1846, he purchased...
COHEN, ELLEN GERTRUDE – English painter; studied at the Slade and Royal Academy schools, London, and in Paris under Constant and Laurens; first exhibited at the Academy in 1891, her work being a portrait medallion of Dr. B. W. Richardson. In Paris she...
COHEN, FRANCIS LYON – English rabbi, author, and expert on Hebrew music; born at Aldershot Nov. 14, 1862, and educated at Jews' College and University College, London. Cohen became minister of the congregation in South Hackney (1883-1885), then of...
COHEN, HENRY EMANUEL – Judge of the supreme court of New South Wales; born at PortMacquarie Dec., 1840. After receiving an ordinary education he served as clerk in 1856; then entered business at Bathurst, but went to London in 1868, where he commenced...
COHEN, ISAAC – English theatrical manager; born about 1835. He is one of the oldest of the London managers, having, first on the Surrey side, and for 34 years in the East End of London, directed theaters for a period altogether of 44 years....
COHEN, J. I. DE LISSA – Mauritius journalist; died May 31, 1879, at Curepipe. He was connected for nearly twenty years with journalism, and was editor and founder of the "Mercantile Record and Commercial Gazette" of Mauritius. He exerted himself...
COHEN, LEVI A. – Journalist and champion of the Jews of Tangier; born at Mogador in 1844; died at Tangier Nov. 9, 1888. He went to England at an early age, but subsequently settled at Tangier, where he remained for the rest of his life.To the...
COHEN, LEVY BARENT – English financier and communal worker; born at Amsterdam 1740; died in England 1808; son of Barent Cohen, a wealthy merchant of Amsterdam. He removed to England with his brother, and by 1778 had developed a large business in...
COHEN, LIONEL LOUIS – English financier, politician, and communal worker; born in London 1832; died there June 26, 1887; son of Louis Cohen, founder of the house of Louis Cohen & Sons, foreign bankers and members of the Stock Exchange; of this firm...
COHEN, LOUIS LOUIS – English communal worker; born in London Sept., 1799; died there March 15, 1882. For two generations Cohen was a commanding figure in the Anglo-Jewish community, and took a prominent share in the management of its affairs. In...
COHEN, LOUIS S. – Lord mayor of Liverpool in 1899; born at Sydney, New South Wales, in 1846; son of Samuel Cohen, who represented Morpeth in the Parliament of New South Wales. He was educated in London, at Edmonton House (H. N. Solomon's school)...
COLCHESTER – County town of Essex, England. Jews are first mentioned as living in Colchester in 1185, and it is probable that they were involved in the massacre of 1190. The community was evidently of some importance, as it was ninth in the...
COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM – Bishop of Natal and English Biblical critic; born at St. Austell, Cornwall, Jan. 24, 1814; died Jan. 20, 1883. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. After obtaining his degree Colenso passed some time as a teacher at...
COLLINS, CHARLOTTE – Anglo-American actress; born in London, England, about 1865. She began her stage career at the age of five, when she made her début as a rope-dancer. Having lost both her parents while still a child, she joined her sisters,...
COLOPHON – An inscription or device placed at the end of books, generally with the intention of showing the title, the writer's or the printer's name, the date, and the place of printing. Originally the certificate of the illuminator, it...
COLORNI (COLORNO), ABRAHAM – Italian engineer; born at Mantua about 1530. His great skill in his profession caused him to be much sought after, and in 1578 he held the position of engineer at the court of Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, who, in 1588 sent...
COMMERCE – Sale or exchange of goods, generally on a large scale. During the Biblical period the Hebrews in Palestine had what is known as a natural self-sufficing economy (Benzinger, "Arch." p. 213)—that is, each household grew or made...
COMPIÉGNE DE WEIL, LUDWIG – Convert to Christianity; lived at Paris, later at Metz, in the second half of the seventeenth century. He was a descendant of the rabbi Jacob Weil of Nuremberg. Having embraced Christianity while still a youth, he studied...
CONAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON – Italian printer, Talmudist, and physician: flourished at Mantua in the second half of the fifteenth century. He obtained the title of "ḥaber" (associate of a rabbi) for his learning, but displayed it chiefly in the choice of...
CONQUE, JOSEPH – Nephew of Abraham ben Levi Conque; lived in Hebron, Palestine, during the seventeenth century. He was the teacher of Isaac b. Judah Rapoport. Some of his novellæ and responsa are cited in Ḥayyim Abulafia's various...
CONSANGUINITY AMONG JEWS – Owing to their dispersion among populations professing creed different from their own, Jews have married ear relatives more frequently than the rest of the world. The marriage of first cousins and even of uncle and niece is...