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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
COWEN, LIONEL – Painter; born 1846; died Aug., 1895; brother of Frederic H. Cowen, the composer. Cowen, a painter of considerable ability, was a member of the Royal Society of British Artists,and frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy. He...
CRACOW – Fifteenth Century. A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Poland; founded about 700 C.E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cracow, but it is probable that the Jews...
CRADLE SONGS, JUDÆO-GERMAN – Songs written as lullabies; these exist in great variety and profusion among the Jews speaking Judæo-German or Yiddish, and among them may be quoted the following:For boys:Inter Yankeles wigeleBehind Jankele's cradleShteit a...
CRANIOMETRY – The methods of measuring skulls for the purpose of determining certain topographical relations, the most important measurement of the skull being the cranial index, or the cephalic index in case the measurements are taken on the...
CRESQUES LO JUHEU – Chartographer who flourished at Majorca and Barcelona at the end of the fourteenth century. Prince Juan of Aragon sent to Charles VI. of France in 1381, when the latter was a lad of thirteen years, a "mappa mundi" made by...
CROMWELL, OLIVER – Silver Salver Bearing the "Arms of the Tribe of Judah."Said to have been presented to Oliver Cromwell by Manasseh ben Israel.(In possession of Sir Samuel Montagu.) Petition of the Jews of England to Olivfr Cromwell, Dated March...
CROOL, JOSEPH – Teacher and controversialist; flourished in England about 1838. He gave lessons in Hebrew to a few students in the University of Cambridge when, for several years, the regius professors of Hebrew were absentees. He was not by...
CRUSADES, THE – First Crusade: 1096. Expeditions from western Europe to recover Jerusalem and the holy sepulcher from the control of the infidel. The undisciplined mobs accompanying the first three Crusades attacked the Jews in Germany, France,...
CRYPTO-JEWS – Jews professing another religion but practising Jewish rites in secret in their own homes. There was some tendency toward this even in early days, as is shown by the attempts of certain Jews to avoid being taken for such (see...
CUNÆUS, PETRUS – Dutch Christian and rabbinical scholar; born at Flushing 1586; died at Leyden Dec. 2, 1638. From 1617 until his death he was professor of jurisprudence and politics at the University of Leyden. Cunæus holds a position of some...
CUP OF BENEDICTION – The cup of wine taken immediately after grace has been recited at the conclusion of a meal. The custom is first mentioned directly in Mish. Ber. vi 6: "If wine comes to them [a company of three or more] during the meal, each one...
CURTAIN – Curtains in Tabernacle. An adjustable drapery, usually hung before a window or passageway to insure privacy. In Ex. xxvi. and xxxvi., containing the directions for the making and a description of the erection of the Tabernacle,...
DAVID BEN ABRAHAM – Karaite lexicographer of the tenth century. His surname "al-Fasi" shows that he came from Fez. From a reference by Abu al-Faraj Harun ("Rev. Et. Juives," xxx. 252; compare Pinsker, "Liḳḳuṭe Ḳadmoniyyot," i. 183), and from the...
DAVID, BENJAMIN FERDINAND – French deputy; born at Niort, department of Deux-Sèvres, March 30, 1796; died there Jan. 24, 1879. He studied medicine, and went on several cruises to the Gulf of Mexico as assistant surgeon in the navy in 1813-14. He was deputy...
DAVIDS, ARTHUR LUMLEY – English Orientalist; born in London 1811; died from a sudden attack of cholera July 19, 1832. At an early age he applied himself more particularly to the study of mechanics, music, and experimental philosophy. At the age of...
DAVIDSON, BENJAMIN – English Orientalist of Jewish birth; died 1871. He was a worker for the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews, and when that institution founded in London (1847) a college for the training of its...
DAVIDSON, ELLIS A. – English author and technologist; born at Hull 1828; died at London March 9, 1878. Going early to London, he attended the School of Design and the School of Art at South Kensington, and was one of the first art-teachers sent into...
DAVIDSON, THOMAS – Philosopher and lecturer; born of Presbyterian parents at Deer, near Aberdeen, Scotland, Oct. 25, 1840; died at Montreal, Quebec, Sept. 14, 1900. After graduating from Aberdeen University (1860) he successively held the...
DAVIS, ALFRED – Philanthropist; born in London 1811; died Jan. 6, 1870. Starting life as a general dealer, he soon commenced business on his own account; and his firm subsequently became one of the largest concerns in England as importers of...
DAVIS, FREDERICK – Archeologist; born at Cheltenham 1843; died in London July 14, 1900. He was the eldest son of John Davis of Derby, and was educated at the Derby and Belper schools. Entering the engineering profession, he for some years was a...
DAVIS, JAMES (OWEN HALL) – English playwright and journalist; born about 1848. He was educated at University College, London, and took the degree of bachelor of laws in 1869. After devoting some years to the practise of law as a solicitor (1874-86), he...
DAVIS, MAURICE – English physician and philanthropist; born Oct. 8, 1821; died in London Sept. 29, 1898. Davis was one of the earliest English Jews trained for the medical profession. He was educated at King's College, London, where he had a...
DAVIS, MIRIAM ISABEL – English painter; born in London, where, after making a tour of the galleries of Venice, Florence, and Rome, she began a systematic course of artistic study at the Bloomsbury School of Art. Her artistic career commenced in 1882,...
DAVIS, MYER DAVID – English educationist and writer; born in London 1830. He was educated at Jews' Free School, in which he ultimately became Talmud Torah master. Subsequently he was headmaster of the Gates of Hope School of the Spanish and...
DAVIS, NATHAN – Traveler and archeologist; born 1812; died at Florence Jan. 6, 1882. He spent many years of his life in northern Africa, and for some years lived in an old Moorish palace about ten miles from Tunis. Early in life he became...