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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
DEAF-MUTISM – Disease of the ear, generally beginning in infancy, causing deafness and consequent dumbness. As with blindness, Jews, at any rate in modern times, have shown a marked tendency toward deaf-mutism—in the general proportion, as...
DEFENSE – Means of protection from assault. In Biblical times outlying farms were protected from bands of marauders by watch-towers ("migdal"; see Tower). When the collection of houses in a village became large enough to need protection,...
DEMETRIUS – Chronicler; supposed to have lived at Alexandria in the third century B.C. In a work entitled Πεί'Ιουδαίων ("About Jews"), containing extracts from foreign authors, Alexander Polyhistor (80-40 B.C.) quotes fragments of...
DENARIUS – Roman silver coin, which derived its name from its being at first equal to ten asses; later this number was increased to sixteen. From the second century B.C. it was the chief silver coin of the commonwealth, and under the...
DESSAU – Moses Wulff. Chief town of the duchy of Anhalt, North Germany, on the left bank of the Mulde. The settlement of Jews here dates from 1621. The introduction of debased coins had ruined the finances of the duchy, and Duke Johann...
DEUTSCH, DAVID – German rabbi; born at Zülz, Silesia, 1810; died at Sohrau, Silesia, July 31, 1873. He was brought up by his relative Menahem Deutsch, at Breslau. He studied Talmud under Mordecai Benet at Nikolsburg, and under Moses Sofer at...
DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSCAR MENAHEM – Orientalist; born at Neisse, in Silesia, Oct. 28, 1829; died at Alexandria, Egypt, May 12, 1873. His early training was conducted by his uncle, David Deutsch of Myslowitz, to whom he owed his wide acquaintance with Hebrew...
DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSCAR MENAHEM – Orientalist; born at Neisse, in Silesia, Oct. 28, 1829; died at Alexandria, Egypt, May 12, 1873. His early training was conducted by his uncle, David Deutsch of Myslowitz, to whom he owed his wide acquaintance with Hebrew...
DEUTZ, EMMANUEL (Menahem) – Chief rabbi of the Central Consistory of the Jews of France; born at Coblenz, in Rhenish Prussia, 1763; died Jan. 31, 1842. After studying for some years at the yeshibah at Mayence, he was appointed rabbi in his native town. He...
DIABETES MELLITUS – A Disease of Civilization. A constitutional disorder of nutrition, characterized by the persistent elimination of grape-sugar in the urine. It is considered to be a disease of the wealthier classes, and is more common in cities...
DIATHESIS – A predisposition to certain forms of disease. It has been observed by physicians at all times that some races are more prone to be affected by certain diseases than are other races. These peculiar tendencies have sometimes been...
DICKENS, CHARLES – English novelist; born Feb. 7, 1812, at 387 Mile End Terrace, Commercial Road, Landport, Portsea; died June 9, 1870, at Gadshill, near Rochester, Kent. Dickens is of interest to the Jewish world principally through two of his...
D'ISRAELI, BENJAMIN – 1. English merchant and financier; born in Venice Sept. 22, 1730; died at Stoke Newington, London, in 1816. He went to England in 1748, and settled there as a merchant, though he did not take out papers of denization till...
DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, EARL OF BEACONSFIELD – English statesman; born at London, England, Dec. 21, 1804; died there April 19, 1881. The son of Isaac D'Israeli, he was descended from a wealthy Sephardic family of Venice, his grandfather having come to England to engage in...
D'ISRAELI, ISAAC – English author; born at Enfield, Middlesex, May, 1766; died at Bradenham Jan. 19, 1848. He was the only son of Benjamin D'Israeli, and after completing his studies and travels, he first appeared in print (Dec., 1786) with a...
DISRAELI PEDIGREE – The following is a genealogical tree of the Disraeli family: Lord Beaconsfield could trace his ancestry only back to his grandfather of the same name, who arrived in England from Venice in 1759 (though he himself dated his...
DIVEKAR, ABRAHAM SAMUEL – Beni-Israel soldier; born near Bombay about 1830. He enlisted in the Nineteenth Regiment native infantry March 1, 1851; was promoted to the rank of a jemedar Jan. 1, 1872; and was appointed subedar Sept. 10, 1878. Divekar was...
DIVEKAR, SAMUEL EZEKIEL (Samajee Hasajee) – Soldier in the service of the East India Company and second founder of the Beni-Israel congregation of Bombay; born at Cochin in 1730; died there in 1797. He enlisted in the East India Company's army about 1760, and rose to the...
DOMUS CONVERSORUM – House in London founded by order of Henry III. in the year 1232 to provide a home and free maintenance for Jews converted to Christianity. As, up to 1280, on conversion all their property was escheated to the king, they were...
DORMIDO, DAVID ABRAVANEL – Warden of the Jewish communities at Amsterdam and London in the seventeenth century; born in one of the principal cities of Andalusia (Spain), where he held the offices of alderman and life-treasurer of the customs and of the...
DREAMS – Biblical Data: Dreams have at all times and among all peoples received much attention. In the youth of a nation, as in the youth of an individual, dreams are so vivid that they appear to be hardly distinguishable from reality....
DRESCHFELD, LEOPOLD – Physician and communal worker; born in Bamberg, Bavaria, 1824; died at Manchester, England, Oct. 21, 1897. He studied medicine and dental surgery in Germany, fought in the Revolution of 1848, and subsequently settled down in...
DREYFUS CASE ("L'Affaire Dreyfus") – Memorable trials of Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, officer in the French army, in 1894 and 1899, involving political complications and convulsions of the highest importance, rending France into two sections, and attracting the attention...
DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES – English Christian Hebraist; born at Southampton Oct. 2, 1846; regius professor of Hebrew (in succession to Pusey), and canon of Christ Church, Oxford, since 1883; member of the Old Testament Revision Company, 1876-84.Together...
DRUCKER, ḤAYYIM B. JACOB – Printer of Amsterdam at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century. His activity as a typesetter, publisher, author, and translator extends from 1680 to 1724. He worked successively in the printing...