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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
FRANCE – Country forming the most westerly part of Central Europe.Church Laws Against Jews. —Roman-Gallic Epoch: The banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul in the year 6 (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 13, §§ 2-3; idem, "B. J." ii. 7, § 3;...
FRANKAU, JULIA – British author and novelist; born in Dublin, Ireland, July 30, 1864. Julia Frankau was educated by Madame Paul Lafargue, daughter of Karl Marx. Writing under the pseudonym "Frank Danby," she has achieved conspicuous success as a...
FRÄNKEL (FRANKEL) – A family of scholars and Talmudists, the earliest known member of which was Koppel Fränkel (1650), the richest Viennese Jew of his time. In 1670, when the Jews were banished from Vienna, Koppel Fränkel's children settled at...
FRÄNKEL, JONAS – German banker and philanthropist; son of Joel Wolf, grandson of David Fränkel, the author of "Ḳorban 'Edah"; born at Breslau at the end of the eighteenth century; died there Jan. 27, 1846. Owing to his great commercial ability...
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN – In the Thirteenth Century. City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, Germany. The date of the organization of its Jewish community is uncertain. Probably no Jews were living in Frankfort at the time of the first and second...
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-ODER – Chief town of a district of the same name in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, and situated on the left bank of the River Oder. It is very likely that the fairs held in the city drew a number of Jews there at an early date....
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN A. – Jamaica merchant; born at Manchester, England, 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, April 26, 1888. He went to the island about the year 1837, and engaged in business, becoming a magistrate and consul for Denmark. The tonnage dues...
FRANKLIN, JACOB ABRAHAM – English journalist and philanthropist; born at Portsmouth 1809; died Aug. 3, 1877. On his retirement from business he went to London and took an active part in communal affairs there. He established a weekly periodical, "The...
FREEMASONRY – The institutions, rites, and principles of a secret society devoted to the promotion of fraternal feeling and morality among the members of the order. In its modern form it appears to have arisen in London in 1717, and thence...
FREE WILL – The doctrine that volition is self-originating and unpredictable. That man is free to choose between certain courses of conduct was regarded by rabbinical Judaism as a fundamental principle of the Jewish religion. Although...
FRIARS – Before the institution of the mendicant friars the monastic orders did not play a prominent part in Jewish persecutions. The Cistercian Bernard of Clairvaux actively supported the Jews at the time of the Crusaders' massacres in...
FRIEDLAND – A family which came presumably from Friedland in the German duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (or perhaps from the Bohemian town of that name), and settled in Prague. Nathan Friedland, "head of the ḳahal and of the country of...
FRIEDLÄNDER, MICHAEL – Principal of Jews' College, London; born at Jutroschin, Prussia, April 29, 1833. He studied at the universities of Berlin and Halle (Ph.D. 1862), and concurrently with his university studies he read Talmud. Settling in Berlin,...
FRINGES – Threads with a cord of blue entwined, fastened to the four corners of the Arba' Kanfot and the Ṭallit and pendent, like a tassel, in conformity with Num. xv. 38-40 and Deut. xxii. 12.The ẓiẓit consisted, according to Bet...
GABBAI – Tax-collector; in modern usage, treasurer of a synagogue. In Talmudic times the alms of the congregation appear to have been collected by two persons (B. B. 8b), but the term "gabbai" seems to have been restricted to publicans...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GADARENES – Inhabitants of Gadara, known from an alleged miracle of Jesus (Matt. viii.; Mark v.; Luke viii.) in which he transferred the demons afflicting a man to a number of swine, that thereupon rushed down a steep hill and perished....
GAGNIER, JOHN – French Christian Orientalist; born at Paris about 1670; died at Oxford March 2, 1740. Gagnier devoted himself early to the study of Oriental languages, particularly of Hebrew and Arabic. For a short time a priest of the Roman...
GALATIA – An inland district of Asia Minor, and, after 25 B.C., a province of the Roman empire. There was a Jewish settlement there, which may have been founded by Antiochus the Great, who sent many Jewish families to Asia Minor as...
GAMALIEL BEN PEDAHZUR – The pseudonym of the unknown author of a work on the Jewish ritual, the title-page of which reads. "The Book of Religion, Ceremonies, and Prayers of the Jews as Practised in Their Synagogues and Families on All Occasions; on...
GANS, DAVID BEN SOLOMON BEN SELIGMAN – German historian; astronomer; born at Lippstadt, Westphalia, 1541; died at Prague Aug. 25, 1613. After having acquired a fair knowledge of rabbinical literature at Bonn and Frankfort-on-the-Main, he went to Cracow, where he...
GART, JOSEPH – Provençal liturgical poet and commentator; probably lived at Aix in the fifteenth century. The surname is, according to Neubauer, the equivalent of the Hebrew "Shimroni," borne by the Gard family of Avignon (to which Joseph...
GASTER, MOSES – Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation, London; born in Bucharest Sept. 16, 1856. Having taken a degree in his native city (1874), he proceeded to the Jewish seminary at Breslau, where he received the degree of Ph.D....
GAUNSE (Gaunz, Ganse, Gans), JOACHIM (Jeochim, Jochim) – German mining expert who figures in the English state papers of the reign of Elizabeth. He was born at Prague, and was therefore in all probability a connection of David Gans, who settled there in 1564; he certainly shared his...