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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ANCESTOR WORSHIP – The same homage and adoration paid to deceased parents and more remote ancestors as usually given to deities. Many anthropologists are of opinion that this was the original form of religion (H. Spencer, Lippert); the school...
ANDREE, RICHARD – German ethnographer and geographer; since 1890 editor of "Globus"; born 1835 at Brunswick. In 1881 he produced "Zur Volkskunde der Juden," with a map of the distribution of the Jews throughout central Europe. Though written with...
ANDREW – 1. Commonly known as Saint Andrew; one of the twelve apostles of Jesus; brother of Simon Peter. Both Andrew and Peter were fishermen and natives of Bethsaida, on the Lake of Gennesareth (John, i. 44). According to the Gospel of...
ANECDOTES – One of the many links that help to bind Jews together throughout the world is the number of Anecdotes dealing with Jewish life and appealing to Jewish sentiment, and known in one form or another throughout Jewry. For the most...
ANGLO-ISRAELISM – A theory which identifies the Anglo-Saxon race with the Lost Ten Tribes. Its adherents, who claim that the promises given to Israel will be fulfilled with regard to England and America, are said to number 2,000,000 in England...
ANGLO-JEWISH HISTORICAL EXHIBITION – An exposition held at the Royal Albert Hall, London, England, during April, May, and June, 1887, in which were collected and shown most of the antiquarian remains illustrating the history of the Jews in England, together with a...
ANTHROPOLOGY – The science of man, especially in his physical aspects, and of the climatic and social environments determining those aspects. The Anthropology of the Jews, who, either racially or socially, form a separate portion of mankind,...
ANTONIO DE VERONA – Italian Jew, resident in England from 1623-25, who seems to have been a teacher—probably of Hebrew—at King's College, Cambridge, the books of which record a grant of £2 ($10) to him in 1623-24. Queen Henrietta Maria gave him a...
APES – Biblical Data: These animals are mentioned in I Kings, x. 22, and the parallel passage in II Chron. ix. 21, as having been brought, with gold, silver, ivory, and peacocks, by ships of Tarshish from Ophir (compare II Chron. viii....
APOPLEXY – A sudden loss or diminution of sensation and of the power of motion, caused by the rupture or plugging up of a blood-vessel in the cranial cavity and effusion of blood on or within the brain. Ordinarily it is referred to as a...
ARABIAN NIGHTS – Popular name of a collection of tales written in Arabic under the title "Alf Lailat wa Lailah" (One Thousand and One Nights), and rendered familiar to all Europe by Galland's French adaptation of 1703-1717. The
ARCHA – Technical name in old English Treasury documents for the repository in which chirographs and other deeds were preserved. By the "Ordinances of the Jewry" in 1194 it was arranged that "all deeds, pledges, mortgages, lands,...
ARCHITE – Inhabitant of a town or district on the southern border of Judah probably connected with the Erech (A. V. Archi) of Josh. xvi. 2. Hushai, David's friend, was from that region (II Sam. xv. 32). It would appear to be somewhere in...
ARIA, LEWIS – Merchant and philanthropist; died at Portsea in 1874. Of a Sephardic family, he was trained to business and devoted the fortune he made during a long career to the foundation of a theological college for the training of Jewish...
ART, ATTITUDE OF JUDAISM TOWARD – Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from divine inspiration (Ex. xxxi. 1-6, xxxv. 30-35, xxxvi.-4), and is called in the Talmud "hokmah"...
ARTHUR LEGEND – The cycle of stories clustering around the semi-mythical hero King Arthur of England, and which finds its place in Jewish literature in a Hebrew translation entitled ("The Book of the Destruction of the Round Table"), composed...
ARTISANS – Medieval: So far as they were allowed by the restrictions of the trade gilds, many Jews of medieval times obtained their livelihood by working with their hands. Benjamin of Tudela (1171) refers to many manufacturers of silk in...
ARTISANS – Medieval: So far as they were allowed by the restrictions of the trade gilds, many Jews of medieval times obtained their livelihood by working with their hands. Benjamin of Tudela (1171) refers to many manufacturers of silk in...
ARTOM, BENJAMIN – Chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of London; born at Asti, Italy, in 1835; died at Brighton, near London, Jan. 6, 1879. He was left fatherless when a child, and his maternal uncle supervised his early...
ASCHER, BENJAMIN HENRY – Hebrew scholar and author; born in 1812 at Peisern (grand duchy of Posen); died Feb. 24, 1893, in London. His father, a corn-merchant, gave his son a careful religious and secular education. In 1840 Ascher went to England, where...
ASCHER, JOSEPH – Composer and pianist; born at Groningen, Holland, June 4, 1829; died in London, June 20, 1869. He was a son of Simon Ascher, reader of the Great Synagogue, London, and studied music under Moscheles, whom he followed to the...
ASCHER, SIMON – azan; born in Holland, 1789; died at London December, 1872. He was reader and cantor of the Great Synagogue, London, for a period of thirty-seven years. With the aid of Mombach, the well-known composer, he may be said to have...
ASHENHEIM, LOUIS – Scotch physician and surgeon; born at Edinburgh 1817; died at Jamaica Nov. 26, 1858. Educated in his native city, he obtained honors at the university, and became a licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. He...
ASHER, ABRAHAM (ADOLF) – Publisher, bibliographer, and editor; born at Kammin, Prussia, Aug. 23, 1800; died at Venice, Sept. 1, 1853. He was destined for a commercial career, and was sent for this purpose to England. He settled afterward as a jewelry...
ASHER, ASHER – Physician; born Feb. 16, 1837, at Glasgow, Scotland; died Jan. 7, 1889, at London, England. He was educated at the high school and university of his native city, and was the first Jew in Scotland to enter the medical profession....