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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
GIBEON AND GIBEONITES – Gibeon was one of the four cities of the Hivites, reckoned in Josh. xviii. 25 among the cities of Benjamin. That it was not, however, wholly in the possession of the Israelites until a late period is shown by Josh. ix. and II...
GIBRALTAR – British possession, south of Spain. Jews appear to have settled there shortly after the British took possession of the fortress in 1704, and the synagogue Etz Ḥayyim in Market Lane was founded in 1760, while that in Engineer...
GIDEON, SAMSON – English financier; born in London 1699; died 1762. He was a son of RowlandGideon (died 1720), a West-Indian merchant, who changed his name from the Portuguese "Abudiente" on settling in England, and became a freeman of the city...
GILDS – Associations for the restriction of competition in the production and distribution of commodities. From the twelfth century onward most of the towns of western Europe were organized in such a manner as to restrict each craft and...
GROWTH OF THE BODY – From the studies of Majer for Galicia, Weissenberg for South Russia, Sack for Moscow, and Yashchinsky for Poland, which give uniform results, it is found that Jewish children grow very rapidly up to the age of six, whereas...
GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID – English Masoretic scholar and Christian missionary; born at Warsaw Dec. 25, 1831. He was converted in 1846, and was for a time connected with the Liverpool branch of the London Society's Mission to the Jews, but retired in 1863,...
GIRTH OF THE CHEST – While among most other races the average chest-girth measures over one-half the average stature, that of the Jews, it has been alleged, does not reach this standard. Goldstein has therefore concluded that the Jews are inferior...
GLASGOW – Seaport and largest city in Scotland, with a population in 1901 of 760,329, of whom about 6,500 were Jews. The Jewish community of Glasgow dates from about 1830. After 1850 a site was acquired at the corner of George and John...
GLASS – A fused mixture of metallic silicates, generally transparent or translucent. Its manufacture dates from the earliest times, glass-blowers being represented on tombs dating from the fifth dynasty in Egypt, of the fourth...
GLOSS – A foreign word or sentence, in Hebrew characters, inserted in Hebrew writings. In order to convey to the reader the exact meaning of a Biblical or Talmudical word or sentence not easily explained in Hebrew, some commentators...
GLOUCESTER – Large town in the west of England, dating back to Roman times. The earliest date mentioned in connection with the Jews of Gloucester is 1168, when an alleged ritual murder of a boy named Harold was charged against them ("Hist....
MOCATTA – An Anglo-Jewish family which can be traced back to one of the earliest of the resettlers in England.David Mocatta: English architect; born in London 1806; died May 1, 1882; son of Moses Mocatta, translator of "Faith...
MOCATTA – An Anglo-Jewish family which can be traced back to one of the earliest of the resettlers in England.David Mocatta: English architect; born in London 1806; died May 1, 1882; son of Moses Mocatta, translator of "Faith...
MOCATTA – An Anglo-Jewish family which can be traced back to one of the earliest of the resettlers in England.David Mocatta: English architect; born in London 1806; died May 1, 1882; son of Moses Mocatta, translator of "Faith...
GNOSTICISM – An esoteric system of theology and philosophy. It presents one of the most obscure and complicated problems in the general history of religion. It forced itself into prominence in the first centuries of the common era, and the...
GO'EL – Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man...
GOLDENBERG, JOHN – Russian merchant; born on the confines of Russia and Rumania; died 1895. He followed the army in the Crimea (1856-57) as a sutler, and there acquired wealth, which he afterward greatly increased in Burma. He had settled in...
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM B. ḤAYYIM LIPPE – Hebrew and Yiddish poet and founder of the Yiddish drama; born at Starokonstantinov, Russia, July 12, 1840. He graduated from the rabbinical school of Jitomir in 1866. For nine years he taught in government schools, first at...
GOLDSMID – A family of English financiers, who trace descent from a certain Uri ha-Levi of Emden, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.The following were some of the prominent members of the family:Aaron F. Goldsmid: London merchant...
GOLDSMID – A family of English financiers, who trace descent from a certain Uri ha-Levi of Emden, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.The following were some of the prominent members of the family:Aaron F. Goldsmid: London merchant...
GOLDSMID – A family of English financiers, who trace descent from a certain Uri ha-Levi of Emden, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.The following were some of the prominent members of the family:Aaron F. Goldsmid: London merchant...
GOLDSMITH, LEWIS – English political writer and agitator; born 1763; died Jan. 6, 1846. Educated in London, he was trained for the legal profession, but soon abandoned this profession for the writing of political pamphlets and satires. He started...
GOLDSTÜCKER, THEODOR – German Sanskritist; born at Königsberg, Prussia, Jan. 18, 1821; died in London March 6, 1872. In 1840 he gained his degree of Ph.D. at Königsberg University, where he first studied Sanskrit under Bohlen, continuing his studies...
GOLEM – Embryo. This word occurs only once in the Bible, in Ps. cxxxix. 16, where it means "embryo." In tradition everything that is in a state of incompletion, everything not fully formed, as a needle without the eye, is designated as...
GOLGOTHA – Locality mentioned in the New Testament as the scene of Jesus' execution (Matt. xxvii. 33 and parallels). The name is an Aramaic emphatic state, and corresponds to the Hebrew . In the Greek transliteration of the Gospels the "l"...