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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ASHER, DAVID – German educationist and philosophical writer; born at Dresden Dec. 8, 1818; died in Leipsic Dec. 2, 1890. He received his early education at the Jewish school of his native city, and subsequently entered the gymnasium there,...
ASHTUMKAR, REUBEN DHONDJI – Beni-Israel, soldier; born near Bombay, India, about 1820; He entered military service in the Eighth Regiment native infantry on March 5, 1839. He participated in the pursuit of the rebel army under Tantia Topee in Gujarat,...
ASNAPPER – A person who transplanted the mixed multitude of tribes from Babylon to Samaria after the fall of the latter city (Ezra iv. 10). It has been conjectured that this word is a misreading for Assurbanipal, though the reference in...
ASSIZE OF JEWRY – An expression used in the thirteenth century in England for the laws and customs regulating the relations between Jews and Christians in that country, and especially binding upon the decisions of the Exchequer of the Jews. Like...
ASTRONOMY – Biblical Data: Biblical Astronomy, in the broad sense, includes the views taken in the books of the Bible of the position of the earth in the universe, the designation of the stars, planets, fixed stars, and the views held...
AUGSBURG – Capital of the districts of Swabia and Neuburg, Bavaria. According to tradition, it is one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany. The first documentary mention of the city is in 1259; but individual Jews of Augsburg are...
AUSTRALIA – The island-continent between the Indian and Pacific oceans. In more senses than one it has been a land of sunshine to the Jews. Nurtured and reared on British traditions, Australia has inherited the national characteristics of...
AVIGDOR, ELIM D' – Engineer and communal worker (died in London Feb. 9, 1895); was the eldest son of Count Salamon Henri d'Avigdor and of Rachel, second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid. He was educated at University College, London, and the...
AVIGDOR, RACHEL, COUNTESS D' – Communal worker at London, England; born Sept. 19, 1816; died Nov. 5, 1896. She was the second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon and Isabel Goldsmid, and was privately educated by some of the most eminent teachers of the time,...
AYAS, LÉON – Interpreter of the French army in the Algerian campaign against Abd-el-Kader; died 1846. He received several wounds in the expeditions in the Oran, during which he captured one of Abd-el-Kader's lieutenants.At the battle against...
AZEVEDO, MOSES COHEN D' – Haham of London; son of Daniel Cohen d'Azevedo; born in Amsterdam about 1720; died in 1784. He succeeded, in 1761, Moses Gomez da Mesquitta, his father-in-law, as haham (Ḥakam) of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of...
BA'AL – Hebrew word for possessor or owner of an object. In connection with many nouns, it expresses some relation between the person and an object. Many of these combinations are found in Bible phraseology, and are still used,...
BA'AL HA-BAYIT – In more modern usage, the constituent members of a congregation as contrasted with the "toshabim" (transient members or strangers). The Ba'ale Battim consist of those members who pay over a certain amount for their seats in the...
BABA BUCH – Judæo-German translation or adadaptation by Elijah Levita of an Italian version of the Anglo-Roman romance, "Sir Bevis of Hamton." The Italian version of this, entitled "Buovo d'Antona," was very popular—no less than thirty...
BADGE – Mark placed on the dress of Jews to distinguish them from others. This was made a general order of Christendom at the fourth Lateran Council of 1215. At the instigation of Innocent III., the decision of the Council ordered the...
BADḤAN – A merrymaker, professional jester, whose business it is to entertain the guests at a marriage-feast with drollery, riddles, and anecdotes. Whether they existed in Talmudic times is not certain. Two men are reported to have...
BAKEWELL HALL – A large building in the neighborhood of the Guildhall, London, on the site now occupied by Gresham College. In a document at the British Museum (Add. MS. 4542, f. 37), a synagogue of the Jews is described as being on the same...
BALLADS ON JEWISH SUBJECTS – In the folk-poetry of Europe a certain number of ballads deal with Jewish subjects or with Jewish persons. Of these may be mentioned a Neo-Greek ballad on a Jewess given in Fauriel, "Chantes Néohelliniques"; but the ballads...
BALLARAT – City in Victoria, Australia. Three years after the discovery of gold, in 1851, a congregation was formed with Henry Harris as president and Julius Wittowski as treasurer; and the Mount Zion synagogue was built the next year. In...
BALLIN, ADA SARA – English author and journalist; born in London, England; educated at University College, London, where she obtained scholarships in Hebrew and German. She devoted herself to the subject of sanitation, and lectured for the...
BANDOFF, BENJAMIN – English pugilist; born in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; died after 1865. Bandoff entered the prize-ring to meet Jerry Duggan, Sept. 20, 1853, having been matched against him for £10 a side. The battle, which...
BANKING – Speaking strictly, Banking means the taking of money on deposit (banks of deposit), and loaning it out on interest (banks of issue). In this sense Banking is comparatively recent; only a few banks of deposit existing in the...
BAPTISTS – A Christian denomination or sect denying the validity of infant-baptism or of any baptism not preceded by a confession of faith. Baptists and their spiritual progenitors, the Anabaptists of the sixteenth century (including the...
BAPUGEE, HASKEL (EZEKIEL) – One of the Beni Israelites of Bombay, subedar-major in the Indian native army; died Feb. 14, 1878, and was buried with military honors by special order of the officer commanding. He held the rank of sirdar bahadur of the 12th...
BARABAS – The principal character in Christopher Marlowe's "The Rich Jew of Malta," first produced at the Rose Theater, Bankside, London, in 1591, and entered in the Stationers' Books May 17, 1594. The rôle of Barabas was created by...