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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
BLACK DEATH – Myth of Well-Poisoning. A violent pestilence which ravaged Europe between March, 1348, and the spring of 1351, and is said to have carried off nearly half the population. It was brought by sailors to Genoa from south Russia,...
BLAND, MARIA THERESA – English actress and singer; born in 1769 of Italian-Jewish parents; died at London Jan. 15, 1838. When only four years old she took a part in a performance at Hughes' Riding School, London. After studying for some years she made...
BLES, DAVID S. – Communal worker at Manchester; born at The Hague, Holland, in 1834; died at Vienna on Oct. 14, 1899. He was senior partner in the firm of Messrs. S. D. Bles & Sons, merchants and shippers of Manchester; from which firm he...
BLINDNESS – Statistics, wherever obtainable, show that the proportion of blindness is greater among modern Jews than among their non-Jewish neighbors. Thus, according to Dr. Georg Mayr ("Die Verbreitung der Blindheit, der Taubstummen, des...
BLOOD ACCUSATION – A term now usually understood to denote the accusation that the Jews—if not all of them, at all events certain Jewish sects—require and employ Christian blood for purposes which stand in close relation to the ritual, and that,...
BLUMENFELD, J. C. – Polish litterateur and revolutionist; born about 1810; died before 1840. Blumenfeld was one of the leaders of a band of young Poles concerned in the Polish revolution of 1831. The rising having proved a failure, Blumenfeld fled...
BLUMENTHAL, MARK – American physician; born July 11, 1831, at Altenstadt-on-the-Iller, Bavaria.He came to America with his parents in Aug., 1839, attended the academy at Chambersburg, Pa., the public and high schools at Philadelphia, Pa., and...
BODENSCHATZ, JOHANN CHRISTIAN GEORG – German Protestant theologian; born at Hof, Germany, May 25, 1717; died Oct. 4, 1797, at Baiersdorf near Erlangen. In his early education at the gymnasium of Gera he became interested in Oriental and Biblical subjects through his...
BODLEIAN LIBRARY – The well-known University Library at Oxford, England. The building which at present forms the reading-room of the Bodleian Library was begun in 1444 by Humfrey, duke of Gloucester, and received continual accessions of books. Its...
BOESCHENSTAIN, JOHANNES – German Hebraist; born at Eslingen in 1472; said to have been of Jewish parentage, this statement, however, being denied by himself. He was among the earliest to revive the study of Hebrew in Germany, having been a pupil of Moses...
BOMBERG, DANIEL – List of Bomberg's Hebrew Works. "Tefillot Latini." Italian Jewish Prayers Printed in Hebrew Characters, Bologna, 1538.(In the Library of Columbia University.)Christian printer and publisher of Hebrew works; born at Antwerp; died...
BOOK-COLLECTORS – The ideal of learning being so characteristically Jewish, it is natural that many Jews should have collected materials of learning for their own and others' use. The Talmud interprets Ps. cxii. 3 as applying to those who buy...
BOOK-PLATES (Ex-Libris) – Labels with emblematic designs, with references to the names of the owners of the books in which they are inserted. Bookplates came in almost as soon as the art of printing, but one of the earliest known instances of their...
BOOK-TRADE – The trade in books was carried on by Jews long before the invention of printing. A catalogue of a bookseller of the twelfth century was unearthed a few years ago in the Fostat Genizah ("Jew. Quart. Rev." xiii. 52). The poet...
BORDERS – Ornamental designs surrounding printed pages. The first ornaments for title-pages consisted of arabesque borders with white figures. They are found in books printed at Lisbon, 1489-92, the plates of which, together with Eliezer...
BRAGADINI – Family of printers at Venice. After the decline of the Bomberg printing-press a fierce rivalry grew up at Venice among the patrician families who wished to profit by printing Hebrew books. Among these, two distinguished...
BRAHAM, JOHN – English tenor singer; born in London 1774; died there Feb. 17, 1856. His parents dying in his childhood, he became a chorister at the Duke's Place Synagogue, till one of his former companions in the choir, named Leoni, adopted...
BRANDAM, FERNANDO ALVAREZ – Marano and physician at Lisbon in the seventeenth century; contemporary of Manuel Fernandez de Villa-Real, who characterizes him as "insigne y illustre ingenio." At the instance of his friend Isaac Fernando Cardoso, he wrote his...
BRAVO, ABRAHAM – A financier living in London in 1710. He was a descendant of a Spanish-Portuguese family, and one of the earliest Anglo-Jewish poets. Bravo eulogized in English verse the work, "Espejo Fiel de Vidas" (London, 1720), written by...
BREITHAUPT, JOHN FREDERICK – John Frederick Breithaupt.(From Breithaupt's "Rashi.")Christian Hebraist and rabbinical scholar at the beginning of the eighteenth century; aulic councilor to the emperor and to the duke of Gotha. He produced an elaborate...
BRESLAU, MARCUS HEYMANN – Author and journalist; born at Breslau, Germany; died in London May 14, 1864. He went to London as a youth, and for a time taught Hebrew and was attached to a synagogue. He then became connected with the "Hebrew Review," edited...
BRIGHT, JOHN – English statesman and orator; born at Greenbank, Nov. 16, 1811; died in Rochdale March 27, 1889. It has been stated that his mother, Martha Jacobs, was a Jewess; but this statement is erroneous, such Biblical names being not...
BRISTOL – Early History. Commercial seaport city in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, England. Jews settled very early at Bristol, which was the center of the slave-trade between England and Ireland, until its discontinuance, under...
BRISTOL – Early History. Commercial seaport city in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, England. Jews settled very early at Bristol, which was the center of the slave-trade between England and Ireland, until its discontinuance, under...
BRITISH MUSEUM, London – Chief library and museum of the United Kingdom. It contains many books and objects of Jewish interest.The Hebrew MSS.: The Hebrew manuscripts in the British Museum already fully catalogued or briefly described number about...