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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ẒOREF, SAMUEL HA-LEVI – Rabbi at Posen; died between 1710 and 1716. He was the author of "Maẓref la-Kesef" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1681), containing extracts from and an index to the "Shene Luḥot ha-Berit" ("SHeLaH") of Isaiah Horowitz, with two...
ZOX, EPHRAIM LAMEN – Communal worker of Melbourne, Australia; born in London 1837; died Oct. 23, 1899. He was thirteen years old when he arrived in Melbourne, and he engaged successively in gold-digging, auctioneering, and the clothing business, and...
ZUGOT – Name given to the leading teachers of the Law in the time preceding the Tannaim. The period of the Zugot begins with Jose b. Joezer and ends with Hillel. The name "Zugot" (comp. Latin "duumviri") was given to these teachers...
ZUNSER, ELIAKIM – Russian "badḥan" and poet; born at Wilna in 1845. At the age of sixteen he had gained a local reputation as a poet, and after setting his rimes to music of an Oriental character for voice, orchestra, and piano, he sang at...
ZUPNIK, AARON HIRSCH – Galician Hebrew and Judæo-German writer; born at Drohobycz c. 1850. In addition to editing the "Drohobyczer Zeitung," a Judæo-German weekly begun in 1883, and the "Ẓiyyon," a periodical which was at first devoted to Hebrew...
ZURITA – Fortified city of Castile on the River Tajo, one and one-half miles from Pastrana. It had a Jewish community as early as 1137, when King Alfonso VII. won it from the Moors; and during the Almohade persecutions many Jews sought...
ZUṬRA, MAR, I. – Exilarch from 401 to 409. He was the successor of Mar Kahana and a contemporary of R. Ashi, whose enactments he had to follow in spite of his exalted position. He was obliged to leave Nehardea and take up his residence in Sura,...
ZUṬRA, MAR, II. – Exilarch; born about 496; died about 520; ruled from 512 to 520. He was the son of Huna, who was appointed exilarch under Firuz; and he was born at the time when Mazdak endeavored to introduce communism in all Persia. The...
ZUṬRA, MAR, BAR MAR ZUṬRA – Palestinian scholar. On the day of his birth his father was crucified, and his mother fled with him to Palestine, where he was later appointed archipherecite (see Archipherecites). According to Brüll, he was active in causing...