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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
BROKERS, JEW – A term used to indicate the Jewish merchants who had the right of trading at the Royal Exchange, London. The word "brokers" was first applied to traders, merchants, and middle-men in the time of Edward III.; but it was not until...
BROTHERS, RICHARD – English visionary and founder of Anglo Israelism; born Dec. 25, 1757, at Placentia, Newfoundland; died at London Jan. 25, 1824. He entered the British navy in 1771, but was discharged as a half-pay lieutenant in 1783. In 1790 he...
BROWNING, ROBERT – English poet; born in Clerkenwell, London, 1812; died at Venice Dec. 12, 1889. From his somewhat Jewish appearance, knowledge of Hebrew, and sympathy with Jews, it was for a long time thought that Browning was of Jewish descent,...
BUCHHEIM, CHARLES ADOLPHUS – Professor of the German language and German literature at King's College, London; born in Moravia1828; died at London June 4, 1900. He was educated at the University of Vienna, whence he received the degree of Ph.D.; settled in...
BUNNEY, EDMUND – English preacher and Hebrew scholar; born at Vache, near Chalfont, St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, in 1540; died at Carwood, Yorkshire, Feb. 26, 1618 or 1619. He was made prebendary of Oxgate, St. Paul's, London, in 1564; and in...
BURY ST. EDMUNDS – Town of Suffolk, England, and seat of a monastery the ruins of which still exist. Under the rule of Abbot Hugh (1173-80) the monastery fell deeply into debt to the Jews, especially to Isaac Fil Joce, Benedict of Norwich, and...
BUZAGLO, WILLIAM – English inventor and empiric; died at London in 1788. His first claim to distinction was his introduction of stoves made on a new plan, and intended for the heating of large public buildings. He afterward practised medicine and...
BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD – English poet; born in Halles street, London, Jan. 22, 1788; died at Missolonghi, Greece, April 19, 1824. The only one of his works which has any relation to Jewish topics is his "Hebrew Melodies," some of which have proved as...
CACERES – A family, members of which have lived in Portugal, Holland, England, Mexico, Surinam, the West Indies, and the United States. They came, probably, from the city of Caceres in Spain.The first reference to any person bearing the...
CACERES – A family, members of which have lived in Portugal, Holland, England, Mexico, Surinam, the West Indies, and the United States. They came, probably, from the city of Caceres in Spain.The first reference to any person bearing the...
CACERES – A family, members of which have lived in Portugal, Holland, England, Mexico, Surinam, the West Indies, and the United States. They came, probably, from the city of Caceres in Spain.The first reference to any person bearing the...
CALCUTTA – Synagogues. Capital of Bengal, and seat of government of British India. The Jews of Calcutta now number about 2,150, of whom 150 are European and the remainder natives of Asiatic Turkey, Persia, and southern Arabia. Just when...
CALENDAR, HISTORY OF – The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods—the Biblical, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning,...
CALMER, LIEFMANN – Baron of Picquigny, an important personage in French Jewry of the eighteenth century; born in Aurich, Hanover, in 1711; died in Paris Dec. 17, 1784. His full synagogal name was Moses Eliezer Lipmann ben Kalonymus—in German,...
CALVO, EMANUEL – Italian physician and Neo-Hebraic poet; born at Salonica toward the end of the seventeenth century; died before 1772. In early youth he went to Leghorn with his learned father, Raphael Calvo, and on Oct. 23, 1724, was graduated...
CAMBRIDGE – University town of England, and one of the earliest English towns inhabited by Jews. Fuller ("History of Cambridge," p. 8) fixes the date of the first Jewish settlement as 1073. The old synagogue was near the prison, but was...
CAMPEN, JOHN VAN – Christian professor of Hebrew at Louvain and Cracow; died at Freiburg in Breisgau Sept. 6, 1538. He compiled a Hebrew grammar from Elias Levita's work, which ran through three editions (Cracow, 1534; Paris, 1539, 1543). He also...
CANCER – A malignant growth of new tissue; usually in the form of a tumor. Whether removed or not, it tends to give rise to secondary growths in near or distant parts of the body, and to prove fatal. The term "cancer" is usually applied...
CANON – A rule for the inclusion of certain books within a certain degree of sanctity; hence also the word "canonical." See Bible Canon. J.
CANTARINI – A distinguished family of Italian Jews tracing their descent from Gherescion (Grassin) Cantarini, who, when one year old, was driven from his native place, Asolo, and was taken to Padua (1547), where his descendants were leaders...
CANTERBURY – Large town in Kent, England, containing the metropolitan cathedral. Jews were settled here in the twelfth century. They seem to have been on very good terms with the monks, taking their side in a controversy with the archbishop....
CARDOSO, ELIJAH ABOAB – Philanthropist and founder of the Hamburg synagogue; lived in that city in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was descended from the Spanish family of that name, and was one of the first Jewish settlers in Hamburg. In...
CARDOZA, DON AARON – Consul for Tunis and Algiers at Gibraltar about 1805. He was a descendant of a Portuguese-Jewish family. Cardoza promoted the interests of the British government; and as delegate of General Fox, the governor of Gibraltar,...
CARDOZO – American Sephardic family, doubtless connected with the Cardozos of Amsterdam and London, though the connection has not been made out. They trace back to Aaron Cardozo, a London merchant who went to New York about 1752.Among his...
CARDOZO, DAVID DE JAHACOB LOPEZ – Dutch Talmudist and prominent communal worker; born in Amsterdam, Holland, May 21, 1808; died there April 11, 1890. He was sent at an early age to the celebrated bet ha-midrash 'Eẓ Ḥayyim, studied under Rabbi Berenstein at The...