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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
CARMONA – City in the archbishopric of Seville, Spain, where Jews resided in very early times. In an old "Fuero de Carmona" it was ordained that no Jew should command a Christian in Carmona or in any of the territory under its...
CARPI, SOLOMON JOSEPH B. NATHAN – Italian writer; born Dec. 27, 1715; lived at Leghorn. He engaged in the controversy with regard to Ḥayyon's book on Shabbethai Ẓebi, writing an attack on it, extracts from which were published by N. Brüll under the title...
CARPI, ZACHARIAH – Italian revolutionist; born at Revere in the second half of the eighteenth century. After the French Revolution he appears to have engaged in plots against the Austrian government of Lombardy; and on March 25, 1799, he and his...
CARREGAL, ḤAYYIM MOSES BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbi and editor; flourished in Palestine at the beginning of the eighteenth century, but lived in Holland for a time, engaged in gathering funds for Jerusalem. His autobiography is to be found in the introduction to his edition...
CARTAGENA – Ancient city on the eastern coast of the Spanish province of Murcia, referred to in the Talmud. The Cartagena mentioned in Yer. Sheb. vi., beginning, identified in this passage with Spain, is certainly identical with theSpanish...
CARVAJAL, ANTONIO FERNANDEZ – Portuguese merchant, and first endenizened English Jew; born about 1590, probably at Fundão, Portugal; died in London Nov. 10, 1659. He appears to have left Fundão on account of the persecution of the Inquisition, and,...
CASAL MAGGIORE – Town in Italy, about twenty-two miles east-southeast of Cremona. In Sept., 1485, Joshua Solomon and Moses, sons of Israel Nathan of Soncino, began to print a large Maḥzor according to the Roman ritual. In the following year they...
CASHMORE, MICHAEL – Australian communal worker; born in 1814; died at South Melbourne Oct. 17, 1886. He was one of the oldest colonists in Victoria, having arrived in Melbourne in 1838, after a stay of two years at Sydney. Cashmore was president of...
CASTELLACCIO DA ASOLA – Locality near Mantua, Italy, where there was a great slaughter of Jews in 1547. Gershon Cantarini, the ancestor of the celebrated family of that name, was born there in 1546.Bibliography: Osimo Marco, Narrazione della Strage...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO SARMENTO, JACOB (HENRIQUEZ) DE – Physician, naturalist, and poet; born about 1691 in Bragança, Portugal; died at London in 1761. At the age of seventeen he entered the University of Evora, to study philosophy, and later studied medicine at Coimbra, receiving...
CAT – There is no reference to the cat in the Old Testament, the domestication of that animal being later than the Bible, except in Egypt, where it was reverenced as a divine being, and probably thus became tame. Victor Hehn...
CATALOGUES OF HEBREW BOOKS – These were of frequent use among the Jews in the Middle Ages. Judah ibn Tibbon (about 1200) speaks in loving terms of his collection of books and of its catalogue, both of which he recommends tohis son Samuel. Specimens of old...
CATALONIA – Duchy of Aragon in the north-west of Spain. Jews settled in Catalonia (which included originally the county of Barcelona; the following cities of Tarragona, viz., Ciudad de los Judios, Vich, Manresa, Gerona, Besalu, Peraleda,...
CATECHUMENS, HOUSE OF – Burden of Support Put on the Jews. A Roman institution for converting Jews to Catholicism, which the Jews, by means of taxes, were compelled to support. The Vatican founded this house for converts March 21, 1548 (Rieger, ii....
CAVALLERO, CAVAGLIERO – Name of a family, with branches in Provence, Africa, Turkey, and Italy.1. Abraham ben Judah Cavallero: Lived at Fez between 1688 and 1700.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hebräische Bibl. xvi. 62.2. Isaac Cavallero: Talmudic...
CENSORSHIP OF HEBREW BOOKS – Censorship is the regulation, first decreed by the Church and then carried out either by that institution or by the state, whereby books (both manuscript and printed) were examined for the purpose of ascertaining whether they...
CENSUS – A numbering of the people. Several cases are given in the Bible. The first mentioned is that in Num. i. (from which the book receives its name), when the males—i.e., men capable of bearing arms—numbered 603,550 at the Exodus....
CHAIKIN, MOSES AVIGDOR – Rabbi and author; born at Sklow, government of Mohilev, in 1852, and removed at an early age with his father to St. Petersburg, where the latter became chief shoḥet. Chaikin was educated for the rabbinate, and obtained several...
CHALCIS – Capital of the island of Eubœa in the Ægean sea; under Greek dominion since 1832. Benjamin of Tudela found 200 Jews on the island. There is also testimony to the early residence of Jews in Chalcis in a Hebrew inscription on a...
CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART – Anglo-German musical critic and anti-Semitic writer; born Sept. 9, 1855, at Portsmouth, England; son of Admiral W. C. Chamberlain. He received his early education abroad, being sent to France, where he went to school at...
CHAPMAN, JOHN – English educationist and communal worker; born 1845. Educated at Jews' College, London, he became an assistant master in that institution, and was subsequently appointed head master of the Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum. He...