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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PATERNITY – Fatherhood. Doubtful paternity involves not only the right of inheritance, but also, if the father be a kohen, the claim of priesthood with all its privileges and restrictions, including those regarding incest and prohibited...
PATRIARCHS, THE – Biblical Data: As early as the Biblical period Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are nearly always invoked together. God remembers the covenant which He has made with the three Patriarchs, and will therefore liberate their descendants...
PENTECOST – Name given by the Greek-speaking Jews to the festival which occurred fifty days (ἡ πεντηκόστη, sc. ἡΜέρα = "Ḥag Ḥamishshim Yom"; comp. Lev. xxiii. 16) after the offering of the barley sheaf during the Passover feast (Tobit ii....
PILGRIMAGE – Pilgrimage to First Temple. A journey which is made to a shrine or sacred place in performance of a vow or for the sake of obtaining some form of divine blessing. Every male Israelite was required to visit the Temple three times...
PLAGUE – Biblical Data: Word which is used in the English versions of the Bible as a rendering of several Hebrew words, all closely related in meaning. These are: (1) "Maggefah" (a striking, or smiting): Used in a general way of the...
PORGING – The cutting away of forbidden fat and veins from kasher meat. The Mosaic law emphatically forbids the eating of the fat and blood of cattle or poultry, the fat and blood of peace-offerings being appropriated as sacrifices to...
PRAYER – Biblical Data: From the earliest epochs recorded in the Bible profound distress or joyous exaltation found expression in prayer. However primitive the mode of worship, the individual is commonly depicted as petitioning or...
PRAYER-BOOKS – First Prayer-Book. The collection, in one book, of the year's prayers for week-days, Sabbaths, holy days, and fast-days is generally known as the "Seder Tefillot," or simply the "Siddur." The first compilation known of the...
PRECEDENCE – Classes and Ranks. Priority and preference given to individuals as a matter of established rule or etiquette. The superiority of the husband over his wife was recognized when God said to Eve, "He [Adam] shall rule over thee."...
PREFACES AND DEDICATIONS – The general Hebrew name for a preface is "haḳdamah." The saying "A book without a preface is like a body without a soul" is often quoted by authors as a reason for the preface. The origin of the preface may be traced to the...
PULPIT – Facing the People. In the earliest time a post ("'ammud" was used instead of a pulpit; from it the king spoke to the people, and from it Josiah renewed with the people the covenant of the Law before the Lord (II Kings xi. 14,...
RABBI – Rabban," "Rabbi," and "Rab." —The Title: Hebrew term used as a title for those who are distinguished for learning, who are the authoritative teachers of the Law, and who are the appointed spiritual heads of the community. It is...
RAIN – Biblical Data: Palestine did not require such laborious artificial irrigation as Egypt; Yhwh supplied it with, "water of the rain of heaven" (Deut. xi. 11). The harvests were regarded as the gift of Yhwh, since they depended on...
RAINBOW – Biblical Data: This phenomenon of nature is mentioned but rarely in the Old Testament. The beauty of the rainbow is dwelt upon (Ecclus. [Sirach] xliii. 11 et seq., 1. 7), and the glory surrounding Yhwh is compared to the...
REBUKE AND REPROOF – Faithful are the wounds of a friend," says the Old Testament proverb (Prov. xxvii. 6), doubtless referring to reproof. A mild rebuke administered for a breach of etiquette, or for an act of disrespect, was called "haḳpadah"; a...
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...
RECORDING ANGEL – The angel that, in popular belief, records the deeds of all individuals for future reward or punishment. The keeping of a general account between man and his Maker is represented by Akiba thus: "Man buys in an open shop where...
RED HEIFER – Biblical Data: According to Yhwh's instructions to Moses and Aaron the Israelites prepared for sacrifice a red heifer which was free from blemish and which had not yet been broken to the yoke. It was slain outside the camp, in...
RIDBAZ (WILLOWSKI), JACOB DAVID B. ZEEB – Russian rabbi and commentator; born Feb. 7, 1845, in Kobrin, government of Grodno, Russia. He was successively rabbi at Izballin (1868), Bobruisk (1876), Wilna (1881), Polotsk (1883), Vilkomir (1887), and Slutsk (1890-1900). In...
RIGHT AND LEFT – Biblical Data: The right side of things is recognized in many ways as better than the left. The south and north sides of the earth are distinguished as "yamin" (right) and "sem'ol' (left; Job xxiii. 9), the right being the...
SABBATICAL YEAR AND JUBILEE – Biblical Injunctions. The septennate or seventh year, during which the land is to lie fallow, and the celebration of the fiftieth year after seven Sabbatical cycles. As regards the latter, the Hebrew term "yobel" refers to the...
SACRILEGE – The act of profaning or violating sacred things. The prohibition of sacrilege was primarily in connection with the sanctuary (Lev. xix. 8, xxi. 23). The services in the Tabernacle or Temple could not be relegated to any one...
SAINT AND SAINTLINESS – In Jewish tradition saintliness ("ḥasidut") is distinguished from holiness ("ḳedushah"), which is part of the Mosaic law. Saintliness is a divine and lofty type of piety, and a higher morality, not bound by law. Saintliness is...
SALANT, SAMUEL – Chief rabbi of the Ashkenazic congregations in Jerusalem; born Jan. 2, 1816, at Byelostok, Russia. Samuel married the daughter of Sundl of Salant and assumed the name "Salant." At an early age his lungs became affected, and he...