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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
SANCTUARY – The Six Sanctuaries. A sacred place for divine service. There were six sanctuaries: (1) the Tabernacle in the wilderness, built by Moses in the second year of the Exodus; (2) the Tabernacle at Shiloh, built by Joshua after the...
SARGENES – A white linen garment which resembles a surplice and consists of a long, loose gown with flowing sleeves and with a collar laced in front, a girdle of the same material, and a skullcap to match. The name is derived from "sarge"...
SCHNORRER – Judæo-German term of reproach for a Jewish beggar having some pretensions to respectability. In contrast to the ordinary house-to-house beggar, whose business is known and easily recognized, the schnorrer assumes a gentlemanly...
SCHWARZ, JOSEPH – Joseph Schwarz.Palestinian geographer; born at Flosz, Bavaria, Oct. 22, 1804; died at Jerusalem Feb. 5, 1865. When he was seventeen years old he graduated as teacher from the Königliches Schullehrerseminar of Colberg, after...
SCRIBES – Origin and Meaning. 1. Body of teachers whose office was to interpret the Law to the people, their organization beginning with Ezra, who was their chief, and terminating with Simeon the Just. The original meaning of the Hebrew...
SCROLL OF THE LAW – Every One to Possess a Sefer Torah. The Pentateuch, written on a scroll of parchment. The Rabbis count among the mandatory precepts incumbent upon every Israelite the obligation to write a copy of the Pentateuch for his personal...
SHA'AṬNEZ – Fabric consisting of a mixture of wool and linen, the wearing of which is forbidden by the Mosaic law (Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 11). The Septuagint rendering is κίβδηλον (something false, adulterated, or drossy). In the Coptic...
SHABBAT HA-GADOL – The Sabbath preceding Passover. The designation "great" for this Sabbath is mentioned by Rashi (11th cent.), and is due to the great miracle of the Sabbath that preceded the Exodus, as related in the Midrash. When God ordered...
SHABBAT GOY – The Gentile employed in a Jewish household on the Sabbath-day to perform services which are religiously forbidden to Jews on that day. The Shabbat goy's duty is to extinguish the lighted candles or lamps on Friday night, and...
SHAVING – The Mosaic law prohibits shaving the corners of the head and of the beard (Lev. xix. 27), the priests being particularly enjoined not to desecrate their persons by violating the latter prohibition (ib. xxi. 5). The prophet says:...
SHE-HEḤEYANU – The benediction "Blessed be the Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has kept us alive ["she-heḥeyanu"] and sustained us and welcomed us to this season"; in actual usage the blessing begins with the words "She-heḥeyanu,"the...
SHEMA' – Initial word of the verse, or chapter, recited as the confession of the Jewish faith. Originally, the "Shema'" consisted only of the one verse, Deut. vi. 4 (see Suk. 42a; Ber. 13b); the regular "Shema'" in the liturgy, however,...
SHINNUY HA-SHEM – The custom of changing a person's name, as a tribute to his achievements, or as a sign that his condition will be improved, or particularly as an aid to his recovery from illness. Abram's name was changed to "Abraham" = "the...
SHIRAH, PEREḲ (PIRḲE) – Chapter of song and praise to God by heavenly and earthly bodies, and by plants and dumb creatures. It is composed of Scriptural verses, one or two for each creature enumerated; and it is divided, according to subjects, into six...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHROUD – Robe in which the dead are arrayed for burial. The shroud is made of white linen cloth ("sadin," the σινδόν of the New Testament; see Matt. xxvii. 59), which is cut and sewed together with large stitches; the ends of the thread...
SIN – Under the Jewish theocracy, wilful disregard of the positive, or wilful infraction of the negative, commands of God as proclaimed by Moses and interpreted by the Rabbis; it thus includes crimes against God and crimes against...
SIPPURIM (MA'ASIYYOT), ḤASIDIC – Stories, legends, or tales related by, or of, the Ḥasidic "rebbes" (rabbis)—the "ẓaddiḳim," or "ḳedoshim," as they are sometimes called; or, in Judæo-German, the "gute Yiden." These sippurim are to be distinguished from those...
SIYYUM – The formal ceremonial act of completing the writing of a scroll of the Law, or the formal conclusion of the study of a division ("massekta") of the Mishnah or Talmud. In the former case the ceremony is called siyyum ha-Sefer; in...
SLANDER – Poem Written on the Occasion of a Siyyum, Italian, Seventeenth Century.(In the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.)False and malicious defamation of another's reputation and character, tending to disgrace him in the...
SLONIMSKI, ḤAYYIM SELIG – Russian author, scientist, and inventor; born in Byelostok March 31, 1810; died in Warsaw May 15, 1904. Slonimski was the first to teach the Jews in eastern Europe popular science through the medium of the Hebrew language, into...
SMALL AND LARGE LETTERS – There are about 100 abnormal letters in the Masoretic text of the Bible—many of them in the Pentateuch—which were always copied by the scribes, and appear also in the printed editions. Among these letters are: the "waw ḳeṭi'a"...
SUMMONS – Writ, process, or order sent by the court messenger ("sheluḥa di-rabbanan," or "sheluaḥ bet din"), and commanding a defendant to appear before the bet din. Raba, as dayyan, frequently indorsed such a document (Giṭ. 88a, and...
SUN – Early Conceptions of It. —Biblical Data: The conceptions of the Hebrews with regard to physical phenomena were those that obtained among their neighbors, the sun being considered as a torch or light ("ma'or") suspended in the...
SUN, BLESSING OF THE – Formula of benediction recited on the day when the sun enters upon a new cycle, which occurs on the first Wednesday of Nisan every twenty-eight years. The present cycle commenced on the 5th of Nisan, 5657= April 7, 1897....