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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
SUN, RISING AND SETTING OF THE – Dawn and Twilight. In order to fix the beginning and ending of the Sabbath-day and festivals and to determine the precise hour for certain religious observances it becomes necessary to know the exact times of the rising and the...
SUSPENDED LETTERS – There are four suspended or elevated ("teluyah") letters in the Hebrew Bible: (1) the "nun" in , in Judges xviii. 30; (2) the "'ayin" in , in Ps. lxxx. 13; (3) the "'ayin" in , in Job xxxviii. 13; and (4) the "'ayin" in , ib....
SWAYING THE BODY – The habit of swaying the body during study and prayer has been peculiar to the Jews from very early times, and it is one still practised by them in the Orient and eastern Europe. In the Zohar, R. Jose asks R. Abba: "Why is it...
SYNOD – Origin of Synods. Representative council, composed of rabbis and laymen, and convened to deliberate upon and determine points of Jewish doctrine, policy, and practise. The "elders" in the time of Moses and the members of the...
TAGIN – Decorative "crowns" which are sometimes placed on the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The taga is regularly composed of three flourishes or strokes, each of which resembles a small "zayin" and is called "ziyyun" ( = "armor,"...
TAḤANUN – Prostration. Letters with Tagin, as Described in "Sefer ha-Tagin."(Compare "Sefer ha-Tagin," opposite p. 55; Vitry Maḥzor, opposite p. 800).Prayer for grace; said after the "'Amidah" of the morning ("shaḥarit") and afternoon...
ṬAHARAH – Ceremony of washing a dead body before burial. This rite is performed by the members ("mit'assekim") of the "ḥebra ḳaddisha." The body is lifted from the ground, where it has been placed after death, and laid, feet toward the...
ṬALLIT – Mantle with fringes (ẓiẓit) at the four corners; a prayer-shawl worn over the garments, and used by men after marriage and, in modern times, by boys after their confirmation as "bar miẓwot." The ṭallit, which can be spread out...
TALMUD TORAH – Public free school for poor and orphaned boys, who are there given an elementary education in Hebrew, the Scriptures (especially the Pentateuch), and the Talmud (Halakah), and are thus prepared for the Yeshibah. The Talmud Torah...
TASHLIK – Propitiatory rite, the name of which is derived from the passage (Micah vii. 18-20) recited at the ceremony. In illustration of the sentence "Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea," it is customary to...
TEḲUFAH – Seasons. Season of the year. The four teḳufot are: (1) Teḳufat Nisan, the vernal equinox (March 21), when the sun enters Aries; this is the beginning of spring, or "'et hazera'" (seed-time), when day and night are equal; (2)...
TEMPLE, ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICE OF – Officers. The affairs of the Second Temple were managed by a board of fifteen appointed officers ("memunnim"). The Mishnah records the following names of officers of the Temple without stating their respective periods of...
TEMPLE, PLAN OF SECOND – The plan and description of the Second Temple according to Talmudic sources were as follows:Mount Moriah, known as the "Har ha-Bayit" (Mount of the House), had an area of 500 × 500 cubits or ells (1 cubit = 21.85 inches). It was...
TEMPLE IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE – Site. Holy of Holies of the Temple at Jerusalem.(Reconstructed by Chipiez.)Mount Moriah, on which the Temple was erected, is known by tradition as the spot where Adam was born and where he built an altar to God; where Cain and...
ṬEREFAH – Term signifying originally the flesh of a clean animal that had been torn or mortally wounded by beasts of prey, and had been rendered thereby unfit for food. In rabbinical literature the word came to be applied to the flesh of...
THRONE – 1. A royal seat, or chair of state. The king sits "upon the throne of his kingdom" (Deut. xvii. 18). Pharaoh delegated full power toJoseph to rule over Egypt; "only in the throne will I be greater than thou" (Gen. xli. 40). The...
TITLE-PAGE – Title-Page of "Sefer Niẓẓaḥon," Altdorf, 1644.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)Hebrew incunabula, like manuscripts, were mostly provided with colophons, which served as...
TITLES OF HEBREW BOOKS – In Hebrew literature, books, with few exceptions, are recognized by their titles independently of their authors' names. Citations from and references to the "Pene Yehoshua'," or "Sha'agat Aryeh," are often made by students who...
TITLES OF HONOR – Words and phrases applied to persons to distinguish their noble birth, or their official or social rank and station, or as marks of acknowledgment of their learning and piety.Origin. —Biblical Data: The title "adon" = "lord" was...
TITLES OF HONOR – Words and phrases applied to persons to distinguish their noble birth, or their official or social rank and station, or as marks of acknowledgment of their learning and piety.Origin. —Biblical Data: The title "adon" = "lord" was...
TOBACCO – In Jewish Law. The use of tobacco for smoking and in the form of snuff is commonamong Jews, who in some countries control to a large extent the manufacture and sale of the product. It is asserted that a Jew named Luis de Terres,...
TOKAḤAH – The term used to connote the prediction by Moses of due punishment in case of disobedience of the divine law on the part of the children of Israel. It was first pronounced in Lev. xxvi., and repeated in Deut. xxviii., the...
TREASON – Biblical Data: In the strictest sense there is no record in the Bible of an attempt to betray one's country, nor is there any mention of an unsuccessful attempt at regicide, which is high treason; but there are numerous...
TREES, LAWS CONCERNING – Cutting down fruit-bearing and useful trees is forbidden by the Mosaic law. In time of war the fruit-trees about a besieged city may not be injured or used to build defenses; for war is waged against foes, and not against the...
UNITED STATES – A federal republic of North America. The history and condition of the Jews in this territory—apart from Russia and Austria the largest concourse of Israelites under one government in the world—is treated, for convenience, under...