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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

Contributions:
BASKET-TAX – The most burdensome and annoying of the special taxes imposed upon the Jews of Russia by the government. The edict concerning this medieval tax—one of the legacies inherited by the Russian government from the Catholic...
BERNSTAMM, LEOPOLD BERNARD – Russian sculptor; born at Riga April 20, 1859. At the age of thirteen he entered the studio of Prof. D. Jensen at Riga, and at fourteen the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts of St. Petersburg, where he was awarded the highest...
BESSARABIA – Government in southwest Russia; separated by the Pruth and Danube from Rumania on the west, by the Dniester from Podolia and Kherson on the north and east, and bordering on the Black Sea from the Sulina mouth of the Danube to...
CLASSICAL WRITERS AND THE JEWS – The name Ιουδαὶος is apparently first mentioned by Theophrastus, a philosopher of the fourth century B.C. He regards the Jews as a nation of philosophers who "spend their days in discussions about God, and their nights in...
CZARNIECKI, STEFAN – Polish general; born 1599; died at the village of Sokolovka, Volhynia, Feb. 12, 1664. Czarniecki distinguished himself in the wars against Sweden and Russia (1656-61), but unlike Wishnevietzki, who stands out as the protector of...
CZECHOWIC, MARTIN – Polish Unitarian priest; born at Zbaszynie about 1530; died 1613. Czechowic lived at a time when religious restlessness was prevalent in Poland. Numerous religious sects arose, varying from the old Catholicism and the new...
DAGHESTAN – Russian province, situated on the eastern slopes of the Caucasus, and bounded by Circassia, Georgia, and the Caspian Sea. In Turkish the name means "mountainous country."According to the last census, that of 1897, the Jewish...
DERZHAVIN, GAVRIIL ROMANOVICH – Russian poet and senator; born at Kazan July 15, 1743; died at Zvanka, government of Novgorod, July 20, 1816. In 1799 Derzhavin was commissioned by Emperor Paul to investigate a complaint made by the Jews of Shklov against...
FERBER, BORIS – Russian author; born in Jitomir 1859; died in St. Petersburg 1895. He entered the University of St. Petersburg, where he took a course in law, but his inclinations not being toward the legal profession, he willingly accepted a...
FINLAND – Laws of 1779 and 1782. Russian grand duchy; formerly part of Sweden. It has a small Jewish population, which finds itself in a somewhat peculiar position with regard to the law of the land. In 1772 Finland was still a part of...
GAMA, GASPARD DA – German-Jewish mariner of the fifteenth century. According to his own story, Gaspard da Gama was born in Posen, and while still young had to leave the country (1456) on account of oppression. He followed his family to Jerusalem,...
GELLER, PETER ISAACOVICH – Russian painter; born at Shklov Dec. 10, 1862. He studied at the Odessa School of Design, and entered (1878) the St. Petersburg Art Academy, where he won (1881-83) two silver medals, and (1885) a gold medal for his painting "St....
GINSBURG, SAUL MOISEYEVICH – Russian lawyer and author; born at Minsk 1866; graduated from the law department of the University of St. Petersburg 1890. Since 1898 he has held the position of secretary to the Society for the Promotion of Education Among the...
GOLDBLATT, JACOB SEMENOVICH – Russian painter; born at Suwalki 1860; studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts from 1878 to 1888, gaining many prizes, among them the small gold medal for "Priam Imploring Achilles," and the large gold medal for "The...
GOLDSTEIN, MICHAEL YULYEVICH – Russian chemist; born at Odessa 1853; educated in the Richelieu Gymnasium of Odessa, and graduated from the Medico-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg. In 1877 he went abroad and obtained the degree of doctor of philosophy. On...
GOLDSZMIDT, JOSEPH – Polish lawyer; born at Hrubieszow, government of Lublin, 1846; (died 1896; graduate of the University of Warsaw. He wrote: "Wizerunki Wslawionych ZydowXIX Wieku," sketches of famous Jews of the nineteenth century (Warsaw,...
GOLITZYN, COUNT NICHOLAS – Russian writer; born in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became notorious through his history of Russian legislation dealing with the Jews, entitled "Istoria Russkavo Zakonodatelstva O Yevreyakh," of which only the...
GUMPLOWICZ, LUDWIG – Christian historian and jurist; born at Cracow March 9, 1838; studied at the universities of Cracow and Vienna, and practised law at Cracow. In 1876 he was appointed docent, in 1882 assistant professor, and in 1893 professor, at...
GUZIKOV, MICHAEL JOSEPH – Russian musician; born at Shklov 1806; died at Brussels Oct. 21, 1837. He was descended from a family of talented musicians, and became while still a youth a skilful performer on many instruments. Accompanied by his father and...
HAIDAMACKS – Russian brigand bands of the eighteenth century. The disorganized condition of Poland during the eighteenth century made it possible for the discontented peasants and Cossacks of the Greek Orthodox faith to make organized...
HIRSHMAN, LEONARD LEOPOLDOVICH – Russian oculist; born at Goldingen, Courland, in 1839. After graduating from the University of Kharkof he worked in the laboratories of Graefe, Helmholtz, Jäger, Knapp, and Pagenstecher. In 1868 he was appointed docent at the...
IGNATIEV (IGNATYEV, IGNATIEFF), COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH – Fosters Anti-Jewish Agitation. Russian statesman; born 1832. He was one of the prime movers in the reactionary anti-Jewish legislation of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the alleged instigator of the anti-Jewish...
ISRAELITE-CHRISTIANS (Izrailskiye Christiyanye) – To encourage the conversion of Jews to Christianity, the Committee of Guardians for Israelite-Christians was established in Russia under Alexander I. It came into existence by an imperial decree of March 25, 1817, which...
JEKUTHIEL BEN LÖB GORDON – Russian physician and cabalist; born at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Even as a young man he enjoyed a reputation as an able Talmudist. He went to Padua to study medicine, and there made the acquaintance of the young...
JOHN ALBERT – King of Poland (1492-1501). He ascended the throne of Poland in the same year in which his brother Alexander Jagellon became grand duke of Lithuania. The one-sided training received by John Albert showed itself in his attitude...