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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

Contributions:
JUDAH (Russian Family) – Family prominent in the communal life of Grodno and Lithuania during the greater part of the sixteenth century. Judah Bogdanovich, its chief founder, was born about 1475 and died at Grodno about 1546. His father, Bogdan, owned...
KAFFA – Town in the Crimea, Russia. It existed as a Greek colony at the beginning of the common era, and, like the rest of such colonies, it undoubtedly had some Jewish inhabitants. It was destroyed in the second century, and was...
KAHANA, ABRAHAM ARYEH LÖB – Russian rabbi of the eighteenth century; author of "Or ha-Ne'erab," Talmudic commentary, with supplementary notes by his son Solomon Zalman Kahana (Ostrog, 1804). He also left in manuscript "Dibre Ḥemed," sermons, etc., and "Zer...
KALISZ – City in the government of the same name in Russian Poland; situated on the River Prosna, near the Prussian frontier. Its Jewish community is one of the oldest in Poland. In 1264 Boleslaw the Pious granted the Jews of Kalisz...
KALVARIYA – District town in the government of Suwalki, Russian Poland. In 1897 it had a total population of 8,420, including about 7,000 Jews. The Jewish community was established there in 1713, as appears from a charter of privileges...
KAUFMAN, ALEXANDER ARKADYEVICH – Russian political economist; born 1864. After graduating in law from the University of St. Petersburg, he was commissioned (1887-90) by the minister of domains to investigate the economic life of the peasants in the governments...
KAUFMAN, ARKADYA (AARON) – Russian communal worker; born at Grodno early in the nineteenth century; died at St. Petersburg April 19, 1893. While receiving a thorough Talmudic education he acquired also by his own unassisted efforts the French and German...
KAUFMAN, ILLARION IGNATYEVICH – Russian political economist; born at Odessa 1847. He graduated from the University of Kharkof, and entered the government service in 1870.Kaufman's writings deal chiefly with problems of currency and loans, especially of state...
KERTCH – Russian seaport at the eastern extremity of the Crimean peninsula; the ancient Panticapæon. A Greek inscription on a marble slab found in Kertch and preserved in the Imperial "Ermitage" in St. Petersburg shows that a Jewish...
KHERSON – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; situated on the right bank of the Dnieper, near its mouth. It was founded by Prince Potemkin in 1778. When permission was given the Jews to settle in New Russia by a...
KHOLM (CHELM) – Russian district town in the government of Lublin. Its Jews are mentioned in various documents of 1550 to 1569. In the latter year the delegate from Kholm to the Diet of Lublin complained of the growing power of the Jews and...
KIERA (ESTHER) – Jewish favorite of the sultana Baffa, who was the wife of Murad III. and the mother of Mohammed III. (not, as Graetz designates her, the mother of Mohammed IV.); died 1600. The widow of one Elias Chandali, Esther gained great...
KLETZK – Russian town, in the government of Minsk. It is believed to have been founded in the eleventh century, but the earliest known mention of the Jewish community there refers to 1522. A document dated Sept. 5, 1522, was issued by...
KOROBKA – That part of the Basket-Tax which is levied in Russia on kasher meat and poultry. The tax on salt, preserved provisions, flour, and grain, while in some instances included in the basket-tax, should not be confounded with the...
KOVEL – District town in the government of Volhynia, Russia. In the beginning of the fourteenth century it was given by Gedemin to his grandson, Theodor Sangushko, and in 1518 the Magdeburg Rights were granted to it by Sigismund I....
KRONENBERG, LEOPOLD JULIAN, BARON – Polish-Russian banker; brother of Stanislaw Kronenberg; born in Warsaw 1849. After graduating from the gymnasium he studied in the law department of the high school, and then took upthe study of agriculture at Bonn and...
KRONENBERG, STANISLAW LEOPOLD – Polish-Russian financier; brother of Leopold Kronenberg; born at Warsaw 1846; died there 1894. After graduating from gymnasium and high school he went to France. For two years he devoted himself to the study of political economy...
KULISHER, REUBEN MOISEIYEVICH – Russian physician and educator; born at Dubno 1828; died at Kiev Aug. 9, 1896; educated at the local district school, at the classical gymnasium of Jitomir (graduated with gold medal in 1848), and at the medico-chirurgical...
KUPERNIK, ABRAHAM (AVRAAM ARONOVICH) – Russian communal worker; born at Wilna 1821; died at Dembitza 1893, on his homeward journey from abroad; buried in Kiev. He studied Talmud at the Volozhin yeshibah and acquireda fair secular education. In 1851 he became manager...
KURDISTAN – A country of western Asia, partly under Turkish and partly under Persian rule, although the Kurds pay but little attention to either government. They derive their income from agriculture and cattle-raising, and a goodly share of...
LANDAU, ADOLPH YEFIMOVICH – Russian journalist and publisher; born at Rossienny, Russia, 1841; died at Berlin July 21, 1902. In 1862 he moved to St. Petersburg, attended the lectures on law at the university, and after two years went to Kovno, where he...
LENCHITZA – District town in the government of Kalisz, Russian Poland. On April 20, 1639, members of its Jewish community were accused of ritual murder, owing to the disappearance of a Christian child, aged one and one-half years, from the...
LEVANDA, LEV OSIPOVITCH – Russian author; born at Minsk 1835; died at St. Petersburg 1888. Levanda graduated from the rabbinical school in Wilna in 1854; was appointed instructor in the government school of his native town; and held the position of...
LEVIN, JUDAH LÖB (JEHALEL) – Hebrew poet; born at Minsk, Russia, 1845. He studied Talmud under Rabbi Ḥayyim Selig and other prominent rabbis. At the age of sixteen he read through the entire Talmud. He was then married tothe daughter of a Ḥasid; and under...
LEVINSON-LESSING, FEODOR (FRANZ) YULYEVICH – Russian geologist; born 1861. He graduated from the physico-mathematical faculty of the University of St. Petersburg in 1883, was placed in charge of the geological collection in 1886, and was appointed privat-docent at St....