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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Julius Gottlieb, M.A., Ph.D.

New York City.

Contributions:
RABBINOVICZ, RAPHAEL NATHAN – Raphael Rabbinovicz.Talmudical scholar and antiquarian; born at Novo-Zhagory, government of Kovno, Russia, in 1835; died at Kiev Nov. 28, 1888. At the age of twenty-eight he left Russia, and, having spent some time in Lemberg,...
REIFMANN, JACOB – Russian author and philosopher; born April 7, 1818, at Lagow, near Opatow, Russian Poland; died at Szczebrszyn Oct. 13, 1895. Up to the age of six he received instruction in Hebrew from his father, whom circumstances had forced...
ROMANIN, SAMUEL – Italian historian; born at Triest in 1808; died at Venice Sept. 9, 1861. Having at an early age lost his parents, who died in poor circumstances, Romanin found himself head of the family, with which in 1821 he removed to Venice,...
ROSIN, HEINRICH – German jurist; born at Breslau Sept. 14, 1855. In 1880 he established himself as privat-docent in the law department of the Breslan University, but, receiving a call from the University of Freiburg assistant professor three...
SARATOF – So-Called Confession. Ark of the Law in the Synagogue at Sarajevo.(From a photograph.)Russian city, in the government of the same name; situated on the right bank of the Volga. The city is chiefly memorable for the "Saratof...
SATANOW, ISAAC HA-LEVI – Scholar and poet; born at Satanow, Poland, 1733; died in Berlin, Germany, Dec. 25, 1805. In early manhood he left his native country and went to the Prussian capital in search of learning. There he became the protégé of Isaac...
SCHÖNHAK, JOSEPH – Russian author; born at Tiktin 1812; died at Suwalki Dec., 10, 1870. Schönhak led a retired life, devoting his time to writing and study. He was the author of "Toledot ha-Areẓ" (Warsaw, 1841) and "Ha-Mashbir," or "'Aruk...
SCHÜLER GELAUF – Organized attacks upon the Jews of different Polish cities by Christian youths, especially pupils of the many Jesuit schools that existed in Poland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These youths not only assaulted...
SCHULMAN, KALMAN – Russian author, historian, and poet; born at Bykhov, government of Moghilef (Mohilev), Russia, in 1819; died in Wilna Jan. 2, 1899. He studied Hebrew and Talmud in the ḥeder, and two years after his marriage he went to the...
SHKLOV – Town in the government of Moghilef, Russia; situated on the right bank of the Dnieper. Jews settled there at an early period,probably in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Its location on the boundary-line between Russia...
SHKUD – Russian town in the government of Kovno, situated at the confluence of the rivers Bortava and Liwba. The earliest written information regarding the Jews in Shkud is found in their "pinḳes," which begins with the year 1725. No...
SIMFEROPOL – Capital of the government of Taurida, Russia, a city on the Salghir river, near Sebastopol. In the beginning of the nineteenth century it had a considerable Jewish community, and at present Jews constitute one-fourth of a total...
SMOLENSK – Capital of the government of Smolensk, Russia; situated on the Dnieper, 250 miles west-southwest of Moscow. Jews resided there as early as 1489, for a letter of that date from Grand Duke Ivan Vassilivich to King Casimir contains...
SOLOVEICHIK, JOSEPH BAER – Russian Talmudist and rabbi; born at Nieswish, Russia, 1820; died May 1, 1892. At an early age he was sent to Volozhin, where he studied under R. Simon and then entered the yeshibah. When R. Gershon of Minsk was compelled by ill...
STANISLAVSKI, SIMON JUDAH – Russian author and journalist; born at Nikopol, Yekaterinoslav, Russia, Dec. 18, 1850; son of Moses Stanislavski, a wealthy Lithuanian merchant. Simon was at first destined for a commercial career, but he finally overcame the...
STAROKONSTANTINOV – City in the government of Volhynia, Russia. Jews seem to have settled in this city soon after it was founded, for during the great uprising of the Cossacks under Chmielnicki (1648-58) it had a considerable Jewish community. In...
STEINBERG, JOSHUA – Russian writer and educator; born in Wilna 1839. He was graduated from the rabbinical school of his native city, and then for a short time occupied the position of rabbi at Byelostok, being called to Wilna in 1861 to fill a...
STRASHUN, MATHIAS – Russian Talmudist and writer; born in Wilna Oct. 1, 1817; died Dec. 13, 1885. He studied under Manasseh of Ilye and Isaac of Volozhin, who were highly impressed with his ability. Besides Talmud and Hebrew, Strashun acquired a...
TUGENDHOLD, JACOB – Russian educator and author; born in Breslau 1791; died at Warsaw April 20, 1871. Realizing that education was one of the best means for improving the condition of the Jews in Poland and Lithuania, he founded at Warsaw in 1819 a...
TUGENDHOLD, WOLF – Russian educator and author; brother of Jacob Tugendhold. He was teacher in the rabbinical school of Wilna and also censor of all the Jewish publications that appeared in that city. Of his writings the following are the most...
VOLOZHIN – Russian town in the government of Wilna; at the present time (1905) it belongs to Prince Tishkewitz. As in most other Lithuanian towns, the Jews constitute the greater part of the population. Jews settled there about the middle...
WAHL, SAUL – A remarkable personage who, according to tradition, occupied for a short time the throne of Poland. The story connected with his reign is as follows: Prince Nicholas Radziwill, surnamed the Black, who lived in the sixteenth...
WEINBERG, PAUL – Russian writer; born at Odessa about 1840. His father, Isaiah Weinberg, adopted Christianity. Unlike his brothers, Peter Weinberg, a prominent writer, and Jacob Weinberg, a judge, Paul never studied at any institution of...
WIENIAWSKI, HENRI – Russian violinist and composer; born at Lublin, Russian Poland, July 10, 1835; died at Moscow April 1, 1880; brother of Joseph Wieniawski. He early showed himself in possession of great musical talent, and when only eight years...
WIENIAWSKI, JOSEPH – Russian pianist and composer; born at Lublin, Poland, May 23, 1837; brother of Henri Wieniawski. He studied music under Zimmerman, Alkan, and Marmontel, and harmony under Leccoppey, at the Paris Conservatoire. After his return...