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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BAṬLANIM – Title of the ten men of leisure who, unoccupied by business of their own, devote their whole time to communal affairs and are particularly relied upon to attend divine service regularly at the synagogue. Only such places are...
BAUER, BRUNO – Christian theologian, philosopher, and historian; born Sept. 6, 1809, at Eisenburg, duchy of Saxe-Altenburg; died April 13, 1882, at Rixdorf, near Berlin.While Bauer regarded emancipation from the thraldom of medievalism as the...
BEAUTIFUL, THE, IN JEWISH LITERATURE – To the speculative theory of the beautiful the Jews can not be said to have contributed fruitful thoughts. In the economy of the humanities this field fell to the inheritance of the Greeks. This statement will stand, even...
BEDIḲAH – Term employed in the Talmud and ritual codes denoting the rigid scrutiny by meansof which the fitness or unfitness of a person or object, according to the requirements of the rabbinical law, is ascertained. The term is employed...
BEELZEBUB – Name of a demon mentioned in the New Testament as chief of the demons (Matt. xii. 24-27; Mark iii. 22; Luke xi. 15-18). When the Pharisees heard (of the cures performed by Jesus), they said: "This man doth not cast out demons...
BEER, ALEXANDER – Religious teacher and author in Munich, who wrote in 1826, under the direction of Abraham Bing, rabbi of Würzburg, and with the approbation of the "bet din" in Fürth, and other rabbinical authorities of Bavaria, a catechism in...
BEIM, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM – Karaite ḥakam and ḥazan at Odessa; born there about 1820. Having received a good education from his father, who was an excellent Hebrew scholar, Solomon devoted himself to the instruction of his coreligionists, and founded many...
BELIAL – Biblical Data: A term occurring often in the Old Testament and applied, as would seem from the context in I Sam. x. 27; II Sam. xvi. 7, xx. 1; II Chron. xiii. 7; Job xxxiv. 18, to any one opposing the established authority,...
BEN DAMA – Tanna of the beginning of the second century; a nephew of Ishmael b. Elisha. His inclination toward Hellenism and the Judæo-Christians contrasted with the attitude of his uncle, whom he once asked if he should study "Greek...
BENASH, BENJAMIN – Cabalist of the beginning of the eighteenth century; son of Judah Löb Cohen of Krotoschin, Prussia. He wrote the "Shem-Ṭob Ḳaṭan"—extracts from alleged works of Isaac Luria and Moses Naḥmanides, and containing various prayers...
BENEDICTIONS – Blessings, or prayers of thanksgiving and praise, recited either during divine service or on special occasions. They were, according to rabbinical tradition (Ber. 33a), instituted and formulated by the founders of the synagogue,...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN BEN MOSES NAHAWENDI – Karaite scholar and philosopher; flourished at Nahawend, Persia, at the end of the eighth century and the beginning of the ninth. According to the Karaite historian Solomon ben Jeroham—the contemporary of Saadia Gaon—Karaism...
BENJAMIN WOLF BEN ISAAC LEVI – Cabalist; lived at Leitmeritz, Bohemia, in the middle of the seventeenth century. He is the author of a work, "Amarot Tehorot" (Pure Words), explaining the difficult words of the Zohar, published by his son Saul, Lublin, 1745....
BENJAMIN YERUSHALMI – Exile from Jerusalem who lived at Bordeaux; said to have been one of the authors of Wehu Raḥum, recited in the morning prayers on Mondays and Thursdays.Bibliography: Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 17; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 75.K....
BENSCHEN – A Judæo-German word meaning either to say a blessing or to bless a person. It is derived from the Latin "benedicere"; German "benedeien"; old Spanish "beneicer"; Portuguese "benzer"; Provençal "benesir," "beneir"; French...
BERIAH – Cabalistic expression for the second of the four celestial worlds of the Cabala, intermediate between the World of Emanation (Aẓilut) and the World of Formation (Yeẓirah), the third world, that of the angels. It is, accordingly,...
BESCHREIEN – A Judæo-German word for lauding a person or thing to such an extent as to cause him or it to be harmed by malevolent spirits. This superstitious belief is of old German or Teutonic origin. Grimm ("Deutsche Mythologie," ii. 864)...
BET – The second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its numerical value is two, wherefore the bet in the word (Gen. xxi. 12) is interpreted as an allusion to the two worlds Isaac is destined to inherit—this world and the world to come...
BET HA-MIDRASH – Meaning. High school; literally, "house of study," or place where the students of the Law gather to listen to the Midrash, the discourse or exposition of the Law. It is used in contradistinction to the Bet ha-Sefer, the primary...
BIBAGO, ABRAHAM BEN SHEM-ṬOB – Spanish religious philosopher and preacher; born at Saragossa; resided in 1446 at Huesca, and was still living in 1489. At the court of John II. of Aragon, he was, as he himself relates, engaged in controversy when only a young...
BIBAGO, ABRAHAM BEN SHEM-ṬOB – Spanish religious philosopher and preacher; born at Saragossa; resided in 1446 at Huesca, and was still living in 1489. At the court of John II. of Aragon, he was, as he himself relates, engaged in controversy when only a young...
BIBLE CANON – 1. Meaning and Scope. The Greek word κανών, meaning primarily a straight rod, and derivatively a norm or law, was first applied by the church fathers (not earlier than 360) to the collection of Holy Scriptures, and primarily to...