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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BIBLE EXEGESIS – Jewish: 1. Israel has been called "the People of the Book"; it may as fitly be called "the people of Scripture exegesis," for exegesis in the largest sense of the word is in a way the one indigenous science which Israel has...
BIBLE IN MOHAMMEDAN LITERATURE – Mohammed's View of Jewish Scriptures. Through intercourse at Mecca, at Medina, and on his various journeys in the seething, germinant Arabia of his day, Mohammed learned to distinguish between idol-worshipers and such people as...
BIBLIOMANCY – For Protective Purposes. The use of the Bible for magic or superstitious purposes. The practise of employing sacred books, or words and verses thereof, for divination or for magic cures is universal alike among pagans and...
BIBLIOMANCY – For Protective Purposes. The use of the Bible for magic or superstitious purposes. The practise of employing sacred books, or words and verses thereof, for divination or for magic cures is universal alike among pagans and...
BIKAYIM, MEÏR BEN ḤALIFAH – Cabalist; lived in Turkey in the eighteenth century. He is the author of the following works: (1) "Golel Or" (Who Evolved Light), on metempsychosis, according to the teachings of Isaac Luria, Ḥayyim Vital, and Azariah of Fano...
BILGAH – Biblical Data: One of the twenty-four divisions of the priests who officiated in the Temple. According to I Chron. xxiv. 14, Bilgah is the fifteenth in order, and is immediately preceded by that of Jeshebeab. Among the...
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BINA BEN DAVID – Cabalist, and rabbi at Lockacze, Poland, in the middle of the seventeenth century. Bina was the author of "Zer Zahab" (Crown of Gold), Cracow, 1647, an alphabetical index to, and extracts and explanations from, the Zohar and...
BINDING AND LOOSING – Rabbinical term for "forbidding and permitting." The expression "asar" (to bind herself by a bond) is used in the Bible (Num. xxx. 3 et seq.) for a vow which prevents one from using a thing. It implies binding an object by a...
BINGEN – City of Hesse, situated on the Rhine. Jews lived there from the earliest times, for they are mentioned by the traveler Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Bingen toward the middle of the twelfth century. In May, 1254, Bingen joined...
BIRDS – Biblical Data: The general designation for winged animals is "'of" ( , Hosea ix. 11; Isa. xvi. 2) or "'of kanaf" ( , Gen. i. 21), "ẓippor" ( , Gen. xv. 10), or "ẓippor kanaf" ( , Deut. iv. 17; Ps. cxlviii. 10), or "ba'al kanaf"...
BIRTH, NEW – Renewal of a man's nature by casting aside the impurity of sin which cleaves to him from his former life, thus turning him into a pious and righteous child of God. The idea of man's regeneration was first expressed by the...
BITHIAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered of the tribe of Judah married (I Chron. iv. 18). In the Midrash (Lev. R. § 1) she is called the foster-mother of Moses.J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Daughter of Pharaoh;...
BLASPHEMY – Evil or profane speaking of God. The essence of the crime consists in the impious purpose in using the words, and does not necessarily include the performance of any desecrating act.The Jewish law is based on the case of the...
BLEIBTREU, PHILIP JOHANN – Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the seventeenth century; died there in 1702. He published a German work entitled "Meïr Naor" (The Enlightened Meïr, from his Jewish name, Meïr),...
BLEMISH – Blemishes Disqualify for Sacrifice. The Hebrew term for "blemish" ( or ) seems to have originally meant a "black spot" (compare Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch," s.v.). It denotes anything abnormal or deviating from a given...
BLEMISH – Blemishes Disqualify for Sacrifice. The Hebrew term for "blemish" ( or ) seems to have originally meant a "black spot" (compare Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch," s.v.). It denotes anything abnormal or deviating from a given...
BLESSING OF CHILDREN – Among the Ancient Hebrews. In the domestic life of the ancient Hebrews the mutual respect existing between parents and children was a marked feature. While prominent among other Semitic peoples (Smith, "Rel. of Sem." p. 60), it...
BLESSING, PRIESTLY – One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue, having its origin in the blessing pronounced by the Aaronites in accordance with the command and the...
BLESSING, PRIESTLY – One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue, having its origin in the blessing pronounced by the Aaronites in accordance with the command and the...
BLESSING, PRIESTLY – One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue, having its origin in the blessing pronounced by the Aaronites in accordance with the command and the...
BLOCH, MATTITHIAH ASHKENAZI – Cabalist; lived at Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. A blind adherent and indefatigable apostle of Shabbethai Ẓebi, he was appointed by him one of his prophets charged with the announcement of the Redemption.Bibliography:...
BOCHNER, ḤAYYIM B. BENJAMIN ZE'EB – Cabalist, Talmudist, and grammarian; born at Cracow, Galicia, in the first quarter of the seventeenth century; died at Fürth, Bavaria, Feb. 2, 1684. He was the son of one of the wealthiest Jews of Cracow, who owned a stone...
BODY IN JEWISH THEOLOGY – In Hebrew the idea of "body" is expressed by the term "basar" (Assyrian, "bishru"), which, commonly translated "flesh," originally denoted blood-relation, clan (see Gen. ii. 23, 24), the physical appearance being regarded as the...
BOETHUSIANS – Origin of Name. A Jewish sect closely related to, if not a development of, the Sadducees. The origin of this schism is recounted as follows by the Midrash: Antigonus of Soko having taught the maxim, "Be not like the servants who...