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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ADAR – The twelfth ecclesiastical and sixth civil month (Esth. iii. 7, ix. 1; Ezra, vi. 15). It has usually twenty-nine days, of which the following have been set apart for commemoration: The seventh day is observed as the anniversary...
ADAR, THE SEVENTH OF – According to tradition or calculation (compare Deut. xxxiv. 8 and Josh. i. 11, iii. 2. iv. 19), the anniversary of the death of Moses (Megillat Ta'anit, last chapter). Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8, § 49) gives the first day of Adar as...
ADAR SHENI (WEADAR) – The Second, or intercalary, Adar, the thirteenth month of a Jewish embolismic year; it has twenty-nine days and the first Adar has then thirty. Purim is celebrated on the fourteenth of this later month of Adar in embolismic...
ADONAI – Pronunciation. This word occurs in the Masoretic text 315 times by the side of the Tetragram YHWH (310 times preceding and five times succeeding it) and 134 times without it. Originally an appellation of God, the word became a...
ADON 'OLAM – One of the few strictly metrical hymns in the Jewish liturgy, the nobility of the diction of which and the smoothness of whose versification have given it unusual importance. According to the custom of the Sephardim and in...
ADOPTION – The adrogatio of the older Roman law—a legal process by which a man can create betweenhimself and a person not his child relations that properly belong only to father and child—is unknown to both Biblical and Talmudic law. But...
ADVENTISTS – A Christian sect. Among the chief tenets of the Adventist faith are: (1) The restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land (see Bengel, "Gnomon on the New Testament"), and their conversion, based on Rom. xi. 25, 26 (Ritschl, "Gesch....
AFIḲOMEN – A piece broken off the cake of unleavened bread, maẓẓah (usually from the middle one of the three cakes called Cohen, Levi, and Israel), at the beginning of the Seder service on Passover eve. It is secreted under the pillow of...
AGABUS – A Jew of Jerusalem; one of the prophets who, after the dispersion of the early followers of Jesus, came to the city of Antioch (Acts, xi. 19-28, xxi. 10). He represents some of the spiritual forces that helped to shape the new...
AGAPE – The name given to the communion meals of the early Christians, at which the rich and the poor, the master and the slave, sat together at one table, merging all distinctions of rank in fraternal union and fellowship. A good...
AGLA – A cabalistic sign used as a talisman. It is a combination of the initial letters of "Attah Gibbor Le'olam Adonai," the first four words of the second benediction of Shemoneh 'Esreh (see Moses Botarel, commentary on "Sefer...
AGRICULTURE – Historical Aspects: Israel Originally Pastoral. Agriculture was the basis of the national life of the Israelites; state and Temple in Palestine were alike founded on it. At the outset the Hebrews are represented as a pastoral...
AHAB – Biblical Data: King of northern Israel, 875-853 B.C. He was the son and successor of Omri, the founder of Samaria, and the first king of the Ten Tribes who was able to maintain a strong and stable government. Ahab inherited his...
AHAB, SON OF KOLAIAH – Biblical Data: One of the first captives deported by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylonia. As a false prophet he incurred the displeasure of Jeremiah, who wrote to the exiles denouncing him. He was to be "roasted in the fire" (Jer. xxix....
AHABAH RABBAH – The initial words, and hence the names, of the two benedictions that precede the Shema'; the former used in the morning service of the German ritual, the latter in the evening service of both rituals and in the morning service...
AHASUERUS – Biblical Data: 1. Persian king, identical with Xerxes (486-465 B.C.). The Book of Esther deals only with one period of his reign. It tells us that he ruled over one hundred and twenty-seven provinces—"from India, even unto...
AHAZ – Biblical Data: Son of King Jotham. His reign is memorable as that in which Judah first became vassal to Assyria, and Assyrian (Babylonian) modes of worship were first introduced into the official worship at Jerusalem. The Hebrew...
AHIJAH (THE PROPHET) – Biblical Data: A prophet from Shiloh, who foretold to Jeroboam that he would become king (I Kings, xi. 29). Later he prophesied the downfall of Jeroboam's house and of the kingdom of Israel (I Kings, xiv. 1-18). Beginning with...
AHITHOPHEL – Biblical Data: A native of Giloh in the highlands of Judah, and privy councilor to David. He was a man of extraordinary sagacity and insight in political affairs (II Sam. xv. 12, xvii. 21-23), but showed himself devoid of...
AHRIMAN – In the Mazdian religion, the evil deity, who has his real opposite in Spenta Mainyu, "the beneficent [holy] spirit." The latter was identified at a later period, if not originally, with Ahuramazda. Ahriman would seem to have...
AKIBA BAER BEN JOSEPH (SIMON, AKIBA BAER) – Son of Joseph Ḥanoks, a Talmudist and cabalistic writer, one of the refugees who, at the expulsion of the Jews from Vienna in 1670, went to Bavaria, to promote Talmudical learning among their brethren in their new home. Being...
AKIBA BEN JOSEPH, ALPHABET OF – The title of a Midrash on the names of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Two versions or portions of the same exist: Version A, considered by Jellinek to be the older form, by Bloch thought to be of a much more recent origin,...
'AKKUM – An abbreviation formed by the initial letters of ("worshiper of stars and constellations"). 'Akkum therefore came to be the Talmudical designation for heathen or idolater, and was originally applied to Chaldean star-worshipers....
ALBO, JOSEPH – Spanish preacher and theologian of the fifteenth century; known chiefly as the author of the work on the fundamentals of Judaism "'IḲḲarim" (Principles). Little is known of the details of his life. Monreal, a town in Aragon, is...
ALDABI, MEIR IBN – Writer of the fourteenth century; son of Isaac Aldabi, "He-Ḥasid" (The Pious); grandson of Asher ben Jehiel, and a descendant of the exiles from Jerusalem. His name (erroneously spelled Albadi, Albalidi, Alrabi, and Altabi) is...