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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ANGER – A violent passion aroused by some wrong experienced; vengeance is sought upon the one who committed or caused it. It includes every degree, from displeasure and indignation at unworthy acts to wrath and fury. The Hebrew terms...
ANNA – 1. Tobit's wife, of his own kindred (Tobit i. 9), consanguineous marriages being regarded by the pious Jews of old as especially meritorious (see Kohler, "The Pre-Talmudic Haggadah," in "Jewish Quarterly Review," v. 406, note)....
ANOINTING – Biblical Data: Two words are employed in the Old Testament for Anointing, and . The former designates the private use of unguents in making one's toilet, the latter their use as a religious rite.As a means of soothing the skin...
ANTINOMIANISM – The Law a Source of Sin. A term generally used to denote the opposition of certain Christian sects to the Law; that is, to the revelation of the Old Testa ment. The apostles were compelled, in response to the urging of Paul and...
APION – His Political Activity. A Greek grammarian and sophist of Alexandria, noted for his bitter hatred of the Jews; born in the Great Oasis of Egypt between 20 and 30 B.C., died probably at Rome between 45 and 48. As Joel ("Angriffe...
APOLLOS – A learned Jew of Alexandria, and colaborer of Paul. Of him the following is told (Acts xviii. 24-28): He came (about 56) to Ephesus, as "an eloquent man and mighty in the Scriptures," to preach and to teach in the synagogue; and...
APOLOGISTS – Men of pious zeal who defended both the Jewish religion and the Jewish race against the attacks and accusations of their enemies by writing, either in the form of dissertations or of dialogues, works in defense of the spirit and...
APOSTASY AND APOSTATES FROM JUDAISM – Terms derived from the Greek ἀποστασία ("defection, revolt") and ἀποστάτης ("rebel in a political sense") (I Macc. xi. 14, xiii. 16; Josephus, "Contra Ap." i. 19, § 4), applied in a religious sense to signify rebellion and...
APOSTLE AND APOSTLESHIP – Apostle (Greek ἀπόστολοσ, from ἀποστήλλειν, "to send"), a person delegated for a certain purpose; the same as sheliaḦ or sheluaḦ in Hebrew, one invested with representative power. "Apostoloi" was the official name given to the...
APOSTOMUS – The Talmudic Account. Among five catastrophes said to have overtaken the Jews on the seventeenth of Tammuz, the Mishnah (Ta'anit iv. 6) includes "the burning of the Torah by Apostomus" (written also Postemus and Apostemus)....
APPLE – Biblical Data: The word "apple" is the commonly accepted translation of tappuaḦ, from the root napaḦ (to exhale = the sweet-scented). It is of pleasant smell ("the smell of thy nose like apples," Cant. vii. 9 [A. V. 8]), and is...
APPLE – Biblical Data: The word "apple" is the commonly accepted translation of tappuaḦ, from the root napaḦ (to exhale = the sweet-scented). It is of pleasant smell ("the smell of thy nose like apples," Cant. vii. 9 [A. V. 8]), and is...
APPLE OF SODOM – A fruit described by Josephus ("B. J." iv. 8, § 4) and Tacitus ("Hist." v. 6) as growing near the site of Sodom, "externally of fair appearance, but turning to smoke and ashes when plucked with the hands." It has been identified...
ARABIC-JEWISH PHILOSOPHY, General View of – Mosaism a System of Mandates. So thoroughly were the writings of Arabic-speaking Jews influenced by what may be termed Mosaism, that it is necessary to bear this constantly in mind when considering the peculiar contribution of...
ARABIC PHILOSOPHY—ITS INFLUENCE ON JUDAISM – Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. A century had hardly elapsed after Mohammed revealed the Koran, when numerous germs of religious schism began to arise. Independent minds sought to...
ARAMA, MEÏR BEN ISAAC – Philosopher and Biblical commentator; born at Saragossa at the end of the fifteenth century; died about 1556 in Salonica. His father was exiled from Spain in 1492 and died in Naples. Meïr Arama, who had gone thither with his...
ARCHIPHERECITES – Grecized form of the Aramaic = "heads of the school" (pirḳa, literally "chapter," hence "discourse"). The name occurs in Justinian's "Novella," No. 146, Περὶ 'Εβραίων, of the year 553, in which the Archipherecites, the elders,...
ARIANISM – Among the Goths. A heresy of the Christian Church, started by Arius, bishop of Alexandria (d. 336), who taught that the Son is not equivalent to the Father (όμοούστος = consubstantialis), thereby provoking a serious schism in...
ARISTEAS, THE HISTORIAN – Writer on Jewish history mentioned in Eusebius, "Præp. Ev." ix. 25, who quotes from Alexander Polyhistor's collection of fragments, a passage from a work of Aristeas (in many manuscripts "Aristaios"), entitled Περὶ Ιουδαίων,...
ARISTEAS, LETTER OF – In the guise of a letter to a brother Philokrates, "Aristeas" writes:Contents of the Letter. "By the advice of Demetrius Phalereus, chief librarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the king decided to include in his library a...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LEGEND – As the Greek who most impressed his influence upon the development of the Jewish mind, Aristotle is one of the few Gentiles with whom Jewish legend concerns itself. Some 200 years B.C., the Jewish philosopher Aristobulus, made...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LITERATURE – One thousand years after his death, Aristotle, as his pupil Alexander had aforetime done, began to conquer the East, and finally ascended to the supreme rulership of the entire realm of medieval thought. Many writings of the...
ARMILUS – In later Jewish eschatology and legend, a king who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah, and will be conquered by him after having brought much distress upon Israel. The origin of this Jewish Antichrist (as he can...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ART, ATTITUDE OF JUDAISM TOWARD – Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from divine inspiration (Ex. xxxi. 1-6, xxxv. 30-35, xxxvi.-4), and is called in the Talmud "hokmah"...