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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ART, ATTITUDE OF JUDAISM TOWARD – Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from divine inspiration (Ex. xxxi. 1-6, xxxv. 30-35, xxxvi.-4), and is called in the Talmud "hokmah"...
ARTICLES OF FAITH – No Fixed Dogmas. In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and...
ARTICLES OF FAITH – No Fixed Dogmas. In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and...
'ARUK – Hebrew expression for "dictionary," corresponding with the Arabic "ta'alif," and derived from "'arak [millin]" (Job xxxii. 14), "arranged words" (A. V. "directed words").A Biblical dictionary, under the title "MaḦberet ha-'Aruk"...
ARZARETH – The name of the land beyond the great river, far away from the habitation of man, in which the Ten Tribes of Israel will dwell, observing the laws of Moses, until the time of the restoration, according to IV Esd. xiii. 45....
ASA – Biblical Data: Third king of Judah; son of Abijam and grandson of Rehoboam; reigned 917-876 B.C. (I Kings xv. 7-9). The most important event of his reign was the deliverance of Judah from Baasha, king of Israel, under whom the...
ASCARI – Rabbi and author of the sixteenth century; styled by Azulai "Ir weḲaddish" (Angel and Saint); a pupil of R. Joseph Sagis, the colleague of Joseph Caro. He lived at Safed.Ascari was a founder of the "Sukkat Shalom" (Tabernacle of...
ASCENSION – The translation to heaven of a few chosen ones, either to remain there in lieu of dying, or merely to receive revelations and then to return to earth. The ascensions of Enoch (Gen. v. 24) and Elijah (II Kings ii 11) were of the...
ASCETICISM – A term derived from the Greek verb ἀσκέω, meaning "to practise strenuously," "to exercise." Athletes were therefore said to go through ascetic training, and to be ascetics. In this usage the twofold application—to the mode of...
ASCETICS – Shammaites and Hillelites. While the dominant note of Judaism is optimism, faith in a God who delights in the happiness of His creatures and expects their grateful appreciation of His bounties—see Abstinence—there have,...
ASENATH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, and wife of Joseph (Gen. xli. 45). The name is apparently Egyptian; but no satisfactory explanation has yet been proposed.J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: That...
ASENATH – A Greek Apocrypha of pronounced Jewish character, with only one small Christian interpolation. It contains a Midrashic story of the conversion of Asenath, the wife of Joseph, and of her magnanimity toward her enemies. For a long...
ASH'ARIYA – Mohammedan theological sect, founded at the beginning of the tenth century by Abu el-Hasan al-Ash'ari ("the Hairy"). Its aim was to combat doctrines taught by the Rationalists (Motazilites), and at the same time to moderate the...
ASHER, ANSHEL BEN ISAAC – Preacher at Prenzlau, Prussia, and teacher in the school founded there by his father. In 1701 he published at Dessau a collection of discourses under the title of "Shemenah LaḦmo"—with reference to his name "Asher" ( ; see Gen....
ASHER BEN DAVID – A son of Abraham ben David of Posquières; flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century. He was a pupil of his uncle, Isaac the Blind, and one of the earliest cabalistic writers. He was the author of or (Explanations on...
ASHER B. MESHULLAM – Talmudist; flourished at Lunel in the second half of the twelfth century. He was a son of the well-known scholar Meshullam ben Jacob, and a pupil of Joseph ibn Plat and Abraham b. David of Posquières, whose ascctic tendencies he...
ASHES – Use. —Biblical Data: The usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning and in other connectionsIt is a symbol of insignificance or nothingness in persons or words (Gen. xviii. 27; Isa....
ASHKENAZI, BAERMANN – Polish commentator on Bible and Midrash; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Though the foremost of all Midrash commentators, the only fact known about him is that he lived in Szczebrzescin. It is also certain that...
ASHKENAZI, ISAAC BEN JACOB – Rabbi at Byeltzy, Bessarabia; lived in the middle of the eighteenth century. He is the reputed author of a cabalistic work, "Berit 'Olam" (Everlasting Covenant), containing cabalistic explanations of the letters, with some...
ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI B. JOSEPH – Preacher at Safed in the sixteenth century; died at Venice in 1602. He wrote a work, entitled "Imre Shefer" (Words of Beauty), containing homiletic and exegetical dissertations on the Bible. The edition of this work published at...
ASHKENAZI, SIMON, OF GALICIA – Rabbi of Dobromil and Jaroslav (Galicia) at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was a disciple of R. Jacob Isaac of Lublin (died 1815), and carried on a learned correspondence with Jacob...
ASHRE (YOSHEBE BETEKA) – The opening words of Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [4]: "Blessed are they who dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. [In A. V.] Selah." This verse, interpreted by Joshua ben Levy to signify that those who sit pondering on the...
ASHURA – A fast-day among the Mohammedans, observed on the tenth day of the month MuḦarram, and derived from the Jewish Day of Atonement, celebrated on the tenth of Tishri (Lev. xvi. 29, xxiii. 27). The name is an Aramaic form of the...
'ASIYAH – The last of the four spiritual worlds of the Cabala—Aẓilut, Beriah, Yeẓirah, 'Asiyah—based on the passage in Isa. xliii. 7. According to the "Maseket Aẓilut," it is the region where the Ofanim rule and where they promote the...
ASMODEUS – Name of the prince of demons. The meaning of the name and the identity of the two forms here given are still in dispute.In the Book of Tobit. Asmodeus first appears in the Book of Tobit. According to Tobit iii. 8, vi. 14, the...