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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BANISHMENT – Biblical Data: In ancient Israel an exclusion, permanent or temporary, from the native land, as a divine punishment. Adam's Banishment from the garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 24) and Cain's from the presence of the Lord (Gen. iv. 16)...
BANQUETS – Festive meals on occasions of the celebration of domestic, communal, and religious joy, and on welcoming as well as on parting from friends. Social in character, they originated, as is now generally assumed, in sacrificial...
BAPTISM – A religious ablution signifying purification or consecration. The natural method of cleansing the body by washing and bathing in water was always customary in Israel (see Ablution, Bathing). The washing of their clothes was an...
BAPTISM – A religious ablution signifying purification or consecration. The natural method of cleansing the body by washing and bathing in water was always customary in Israel (see Ablution, Bathing). The washing of their clothes was an...
BAR ANINA – Palestinian scholar of the end of the fourth century; lived in Bethlehem, where he was the teacher of the church father Jerome. The Talmudic and Midrashic literature mentions many halakists and haggadists whose fathers were...
BAR JESUS – A Jewish magician described in Acts xiii. 6-11 as a "sorcerer, a false prophet," who, when Paul and Barnabas came to Cyprus, was found in the company of Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul. He also bore the title of "Elymas" (=...
BAR MIẒWAH – Religious Maturity. Hebrew term applied to a boy on completing his thirteenth year, who has then reached the age of religious duty and responsibility. The name "Bar Miẓwah" occurs in B. M. 96a, where it is applied to every grown...
BARABBAS – Prisoner of the Romans released by the procurator Pontius Pilate. The reason for his incarceration is given differently in various books of the New Testament. In Matt. xxvii. 16, he is called "a notable prisoner"; according to...
BARCHES – Judίo-German for an oblong loaf of twisted bread, called in some countries also "Taatscher" or "Datscher." Both names are by popular etymology wittily applied to the words "birkat" (blessing) and "ta'ashir" (maketh rich) in the...
BAREFOOT – Biblical Data: In II Sam. xv. 30 it is mentioned that David, on his flight before Absalom, went Barefoot to show his grief. Micah i. 8, "to be barefooted" (according to LXX.; "stripped," A. V.) is, likewise, a sign of mourning....
BAREHEADEDNESS – Jewish custom has for ages required women to cover the hair as an evidence of their modesty before men, and required men to cover the head in order to show their humility and reverence before God.Bareheadedness of Women. In...
BAREHEADEDNESS – Jewish custom has for ages required women to cover the hair as an evidence of their modesty before men, and required men to cover the head in order to show their humility and reverence before God.Bareheadedness of Women. In...
BARGAS, ABRAHAM DE – Translator into Ladino of the prayers composed by Malachi ben Jacob on the occasion of the earthquake at Leghorn, in January, 1742, under the title "Traduccion de la Oracion del Ajuno de los Temblores de Tierra que en Ladino...
BARNABAS, JOSES – The "Apostle." One of the Apostles, of the tribe of Levi and of the country of Cyprus. In Acts iv. 36 his name is given as "Bar Naḥamah" (son of consolation), of which "Barnabas" is the Grecized form. Some explain the name as...
BARRIENTOS, ISAAC – Author; otherwise unknown, but certainly not the same as Daniel Levi de Barrios; is the author of "Theologia Natural Contra los Atheos, Epicureos, y Sectarios del Tiempo," The Hague, 1725.Bibliography: Kayserling, Biblioteca...
BARTHOLOMEW – One of the apostles; mentioned only in Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 14; Acts i. 13. Some writers identify him with the Nathanael of John i. 45 et seq., xxi. 2, but on insufficient grounds. He is mentioned by Eusebius...
BARUCH, BARUCH B. MOSES IBN – Italian philosopher, Talmudist, and Bible commentator; lived at the end of the sixteenth century. He belonged to the old noble Spanish family of Baruch, also called "Bet Ya'aḳob" (introduction to his work mentioned below, 8d)....
BARUCH OF TULCHIN – Russian rabbi and leader of the Ḥasidim of the Ukraine; born at Medzhibozh, government of Podolia, about 1750; died there in 1810. He was the son of Adele, who was the only daughter of Israel Ba'al Shem-Ṭob, founder of Ḥasidism,...
BARUK SHE-AMAR – The initial words of the introductory benediction recited before the reading of the Psalms ("Zemirot") or selections of the Psalms ("Pesuḳe de-Zimrah") in the daily morning service; the corresponding closing benediction being...
BARUK SHE-AMAR – The initial words of the introductory benediction recited before the reading of the Psalms ("Zemirot") or selections of the Psalms ("Pesuḳe de-Zimrah") in the daily morning service; the corresponding closing benediction being...
BASHYAZI, ELIJAH B. MOSES B. MENAHEM OF ADRIANOPLE – Karaite ḥakam; born at Adrianople about 1420; died there in 1490. After being instructed in the Karaite literature and theology of his father and grandfather, both learned ḥakams of the Karaite community of Adrianople, Bashyazi...
BASHYAZI, HILLEL BEN MOSES – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople in the first half of the sixteenth century. He was the author of a commentary upon the Karaite prayer-book entitled "Tehillat Adonai" (The Praise of God). The work is still extant in...
BASILEA, BASILA, BASSOLA, BASOLA, BASLA – A family originally from Basel in Switzerland (whence the name), but resident in the north of Italy and in Palestine from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century.In 1489 Mordecai Ẓarfati (the Frenchman) ben Reuben Bassola...
BAT ḲOL – A heavenly or divine voice which proclaims God's will or judgment, His deeds and His commandments to individuals or to a number of persons, to rulers, communities, and even to whole nations. The meaning of the word is "sound,"...
BAṬALYUSI, AL-HAFIZ ABU MOHAMMED ABD ALLAH IBN MOHAMMED IBN AL-SID AL – Credited with Philosophical Treatise. Arabian philologist; born at Badajos (whence his name Al-Baṭalyusi = native of Badajos) in the second half of the eleventh century; died at Valencia in 1127 (compare Hartwig Derenbourg in...