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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ASHER BEN ḤAYYIM OF MONZON – Spanish liturgist of the fourteenth century. He was the author of a book entitled "Ha-Pardes" (Paradise), the ten sections of which are devoted to an exhaustive discussion of the benedictions, the results being epitomized in a...
ASHER, JACOB ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LOEB ḲALMANḲES – Cabalistic and rabbinical author; born probably in Lemberg about the beginning of the seventeenth century; died there April 3, 1681. He wrote (1) "Sefer ha-Eshel" (The Book of the Grove), a volume of homilies, of which the first...
ASHER BEN JACOB HA-LEVI – Talmudic lexicographer; lived in Osnabrück, Prussia, toward the end of the thirteenth century. His father was probably the "Jacob ha-Levi" mentioned by Eliezer ha-Darshan as his teacher, and his nephew was Isaac ben Judah...
ASHER BEN JEHIEL – Eminent Talmudist; born in western Germany about 1250; died in Toledo, Spain, 1328. His family was prominent for learning and piety; his father having been a learned Talmudist, and one of his ancestors (not his grandfather)...
ASHER B. MESHULLAM – Talmudist; flourished at Lunel in the second half of the twelfth century. He was a son of the well-known scholar Meshullam ben Jacob, and a pupil of Joseph ibn Plat and Abraham b. David of Posquières, whose ascctic tendencies he...
ASHER ẒEBI BEN DAVID – asidic rabbi of Koretz, Volhynia, and later "maggid" (preacher) of Ostrowo, government of Lomza in Russian Poland; flourished at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was a pupil of Israel Baal-Shem's successor, Baer of...
ASHERI – A name by which Asher Ben Jehiel is frequently cited in rabbinical literature, especially in halakic discussions. Modern historians use the expression "Asherides" when speaking of the sons and descendants of Asher b. Jehiel.J....
ASHES – Use. —Biblical Data: The usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning and in other connectionsIt is a symbol of insignificance or nothingness in persons or words (Gen. xviii. 27; Isa....
ASHIMA – Biblical Data: One of the gods of the Hamathites, an image of which was set up in Samaria by the men of Hamath, whom Sargon settled there after 722 B.C. (II Kings xvii. 30). Jewish tradition explains the name as signifying a...
ASHKENAZI, BAERMANN – Polish commentator on Bible and Midrash; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Though the foremost of all Midrash commentators, the only fact known about him is that he lived in Szczebrzescin. It is also certain that...
ASHKENAZI, BAERUSH (DOB) – Rabbi at Slonim, Lithuania, later at Lublin, Poland; born about 1801; died in Lublin March 6, 1852. He was the author of: (1) "Noda' ba-She'arim." (Known in the Gates), containing responsa on the "Eben he'Ezer"; novellæ on the...
ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL – One of the leading Oriental Talmudists and rabbis of his day; born toward the end of the sixteenth century. Descended from a family of German scholars, he was probably born in Palestine. The greater part of his life was spent in...
ASHKENAZI, DAVID TEVLE B. JACOB – Moravian rabbi and author; born at the beginning of the eighteenth century; died July 16, 1734. Ashkenazi was rabbi of the communities at Aussee and Gewitsch, and lived at Aussee, the home of his father-in-law, Israel Aussee,...
ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER (LAZER) B. ELIJAH – Talmudist, rabbi, physician, and many-sided scholar; born in 1512; died at Cracow Dec. 13, 1585. Though of a German family (according to some, the relative of Joseph Colon; see Mortara, "Indice Alfabetico," s.v.), he was...
ASHKENAZI, GERSHON – Polish Talmudist; born in the second decade of the seventeenth century; died at Metz March 20, 1693. His family name was really , "Ulif," "Olive"(?), the surname "Ashkenazi" being usually bestowed in Poland upon families of...
ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH – Critic of the Mishnah; resided at Safed, Palestine, and died there between 1575 and 1582. Though Ashkenazi came to Palestine from Verona—for which reason he was also called Joseph of Verona—it is by no means impossible that he...
ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH EDELS – Palestinian commentator and cabalist; lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century at Jerusalem and Padua; died at Safed. He was sent as European agent ("meshullaḦ") from Palestine to collect money for the Palestinian poor....
ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Talmudist and rabbi; born in Germany about 1550; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1628. His first teacher was the Frankfort rabbi Eliezer Treves, after whose death (about 1567) he completed his Talmudic studies under Ḥayyim b....
ASHKENAZI, JOSHUA HESHEL B. MESHULLAM – Russian Talmudist and rabbi of the nineteenth century; died Feb. 10, 1867, at Lublin. From 1852 till his death he was rabbi of Lublin, his predecessors being first his father, and afterward his cousin Baerush Ashkenazi. The...
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH B. JOSEPH – Turkish Talmudist: born at Smyrna, where he became chief rabbi; died there about 1812. He wrote: (1) "MaḦneh Yehudah" (Judah's Camp), Salonica, 1793—discussions on the "Ṭur" and on "Bet Joseph, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ"; (2) "Yad Yehudah"...
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH SAMUEL B. JACOB – A commentator, ritualist, and liturgical editor; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; lived at Tabareeyeh (Tiberias), Palestine, whence he was sent as communal traveling agent to Europe. He afterward settled at...
ASHKENAZI (TIKTIN), JUDAH B. SIMON SOFER FRANKFURT – Polish commentator on the ShulḦan 'Aruk; officiated as "dayyan" (assistant rabbi) at Tikotzin, Poland, in the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote ("Explaining Well"), which comments briefly on the first three parts of...
ASHKENAZI, MEÏR BEN MOSES – Polish Talmudist; born about 1590 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died about 1645 at Mohilev on the Dnieper. His father was dayyan at Frankfort and, later, rabbi at Danhausen, Bavaria. When a youth Meïr went to Lublin, Poland, where...
ASHKENAZI, MOSES DAVID – Talmudist and author; born in Galicia about 1778; died at Safed, Palestine, in 1857. After holding the office of rabbi at Tolcsva, Hungary, from 1803 to 1843, he emigrated to Palestine, settling permanently at Safed. In 1844 he...
ASHKENAZI, NISSIM ABRAHAM – Talmudic author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century in Smyrna, where he officiated. He was the author of "NeḦmad le-Mareh" (Graceful of Appearance), which contains methodological rules on the treatises Berakot and...