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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ASHKENAZI, RAPHAEL BEN JUDAH – A rabbi of Smyrna, where he died in 1830. He wrote: (1) "Mareh 'Enayim" (Sight to the Eyes), Salonica, 1816—an index to the Talmud and to Rashi and Tosafot, after the model of Benvenisti's "Sefer Keneset ha-Gedolah"; (2) "Mareh...
ASHKENAZI, REUBEN SELIG BEN ISRAEL ELIEZER – Rabbi and author; lived in Russia about 1780. He published "MaḦaneh Reuben" (Camp of Reuben), a commentary on the Talmud, Leghorn, 1777.Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 321; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2139;...
ASHKENAZI, SAMUEL B. ELIESER – Author of novellæ to the Talmud; lived at Opatow, Poland, in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of Meïr b. Gedaliah of Lublin and wrote "Ḥiddushim," novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Ketubot and Ḳiddushin,...
ASHKENAZI, ZEBI HIRSCH (ḤAKAM ẒEBI) B. JACOB – Early Life and Education. Rabbi; born 1658 in Moravia, died May 2, 1718, at Lemberg. He was descended from a well-known family of scholars. When a boy he received instruction from his father and from his grandfather, Ephraim...
ASMODEUS – Name of the prince of demons. The meaning of the name and the identity of the two forms here given are still in dispute.In the Book of Tobit. Asmodeus first appears in the Book of Tobit. According to Tobit iii. 8, vi. 14, the...
ASNAPPER – A person who transplanted the mixed multitude of tribes from Babylon to Samaria after the fall of the latter city (Ezra iv. 10). It has been conjectured that this word is a misreading for Assurbanipal, though the reference in...
ASS – Biblical Data: The Bible knows both the wild and the domestic Ass. (1) The wild Ass ("pere" or "'arod") generally roamed about in herds, and is associated with the wilderness (Job xxiv. 5). The character of the wild Ass gave...
ASSHUR – Biblical Data: Name of a city once the capital of Assyria. Asshur was apparently the first important town built by the early colonists of the country, who probably came from Babylonia. One of the earliest known rulers of...
ASSHURITES – Biblical Data: A nation descended from Abraham and Keturah (Gen. xxv. 3). In prophetic literature the nation is mentioned as being engaged in making benches of ivory for Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 6). The Asshurites in II Sam. ii. 9can...
ASTRUC HA-LEVI OF DAROCA – Talmudic scholar; lived in Spain at the end of the fourteenth and at the beginning of the fifteenth century. He was a delegate to the famous disputation at Tortosa, in 1413, under the presidency of Pope Benedict XIII., at which...
ASUFOT – Collection"; that is, the name of a medieval compilation of laws, customs, habits, and practises of a religious character, similar to other medieval compendiums of a legal character. It is preserved in a unique manuscript (No....
ASYLUM – Origin and Character. —Biblical Data (ἰσυλον, "inviolable"): A place of refuge for slaves, debtors, political offenders, and criminals; a sacred spot, a sanctuary, altar, or grave, protected by the presence of a deity or other...
ATARAH – Biblical Data: A wife of Jerahmeel and the mother of Onam (I Chron. ii. 26). If Jerahmeel, as seems probable, is the name of a clan, the expression "wife" might point to an alliance (or in the case of "wives" alliances) with...
ATHANASIUS – Bishop of Alexandria; born in 293, probably in Alexandria; died there May 2, 373. Athanasius was the greatest combatant of the Old Church. No less than twenty out of the forty-seven years of his official life (he was made bishop...
ATHENIANS in Talmud and Midrash – The Jewish folk-lore of Palestine was fond of contrasting the inhabitants of Athens and of Jerusalem, and of opposing the Rabbis to the Attic sages. Greek philosophy and esthetics did not greatly impress the Jewish people, who...
ATLAS, ELAZAR (LAZAR) – Literary critic; son of David Atlas; born March 5, 1851, in Beisegola, in the government of Kowno, Russia. His early years were spent at Novo Zhagory in the study of the Talmud. In 1884 he arrived at Warsaw and became one of the...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
ATTIA, ISAAC B. ISAIAH – Talmudic scholar; lived in Aleppo in the nineteenth century. He was the author of the following works, published in Leghorn, 1821-31: (1) "Eshet Ḥayil" (A Virtuous Woman), explaining Prov. xxxi.; (2) "Wayiḳra Yiẓḥaḳ" (And Isaac...
AUERBACH, ABRAHAM BEN ABIEZRI SELIG – German rabbi; born at Buxweiler, Alsace, in the middle of the eighteenth century; died at Bonn Nov. 3, 1846. Being a descendant of an old rabbinical family, he was destined from his childhood for the rabbinate, and was educated...
AUERBACH, HAYYIM B. ISAAC – Rabbi at Lencziza, Russia, and author; of the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the contemporary and friend of R. Akiba Eger of Posen and of R. Solomon Posner of Warsaw. He wrote "Dibre Mishpaṭ" (Words of Judgment),...
AUERBACH, ISAAC B. HAYYIM – Polish rabbi; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century; was first rabbi at Dobria, near Kalisz, then at Plock; later he succeeded his father, Ḥayyim Auerbach, as rabbi of Lencziza, government of Warsaw, Poland. He wrote...
AUERBACH, ISAAC – Grammarian, and exponent of Rashi; flourished toward the beginning of the eighteenth century at Fürth, Amsterdam, and Frankfort-on-the-Main. The works of Auerbach, which are enumerated below, are particularly interesting because...